Petrykivka painting

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Petrykivka painting
style of painting
Subclass ofdecorative painting Edit
Part ofMasterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity Edit
CountryUkraine Edit
Country of originUkraine Edit
Intangible cultural heritage statusRepresentative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, National Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Ukraine Edit
Described at URLhttps://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/00893, https://ich.unesco.org/fr/RL/00893, https://ich.unesco.org/es/RL/00893, https://ich.mkip.gov.ua/inheritance/df6bf7c2-1196-45a0-802c-2141ab6e8c0e Edit

Petrykivka painting, wey dem dey call "Petrykivka" for short, na de style wey Ukrainians use decorate, wey cam from Petrykivka village for Ukraine. Dem use am to beautify house walls den everyday items. Edey exist since de 18th century wey e still dey relevant now as modern art.

De special tins for dis art na de flower patterns, brush styles, den traditional white background. But nowadays, artists fi use black, green, red, anaa blue background.

For 2012, Ukraine Ministry of Culture recognize Petrykivka painting as part of dema culture, wey UNESCO add am for dema list for 2013. E don turn 'brand' for Ukraine den de people for Petrykivka get trademark for de painting style.[1]

History[edit | edit source]

Early history[edit | edit source]

Petrivka painting, yea, e start from de murals wey dey decorate village houses for Ukraine.[2] Different parts of Ukraine get dia own style of decoration. Dem dey renew dis painting lyk once anaa twice every year. Dem dey decorate household items too, lyk wooden chests, especially for weddings.

Later on, dem start "mal'ovky" (мальовки) tradition. Dis be when painters go paint for paper, den dem fit use am to beautify house walls widout coming in person. For 18th century icons for Dnipro region get floral designs wey fit be ancestor of modern Petrikivka style.

De oldest Ukrainian wall paintings plus flowers start from second half of 19th century for regions lyk Dnipropetrovsk, Sloboda, Podillia, den Uman’. Ebe lyke e get connection anaa common origin plus Petrykivka style.[3]

For Dnipropetrovsk area, dem get plenty decorations for walls den paper, but Petrykivka village stand out as de main place for dis style.[4] People dey decorate Petrykivka homes plus murals since 1860, den works for paper start from late 19th century.[4]

From mid-1700s to mid-1800s, na settlers from Poltava den Sloboda regions full de area, den dem fit don bring dis painting tradition come Petrykivka.[4][5] No record dey for wall decoration for Poltava for 19th century,[5] but dem see am for Sloboda region, lyk for Kupians’k for Kharkiv province since 1860.[5]

Some say Petrykivka tradition fit start from Sloboda region, but dem get boxes plus flower painting from Poltava for late 19th century.[6] Sam people think dis style fi dey cam from Podillia thru Uman’, buh murals plus flowers show for der later.[4]

Recognition den establishment (1911–1936)[edit | edit source]

Before de 20th century, Petrykivka painting no get detailed history. Na when ethnographer Dmytro Yavornytsky cam, wey send him student Yevhenia Evenbakh for two trips for 1911 den 1913,[2] na dem first hear about am. Dem discover de painting for an exhibition for Saint Petersburg for 1913.[2]

Anoda person, Yevhenia Berchenko, start research for Petrykivka painting for 1928 for Leningrad den organize exhibitions.

For 1935 den 1936, Petrykivka artists exhibit for Kyiv, Leningrad, den Moscow, den people lyk Tatiana Pata, Nadia Bilokin', Yaryna Pylypenko, Hanna Isaiev, Vasyl’ Vovk, den Ganna Pavlenko showcase dema work. Dis expo make Petrikivka painting popular wey people no really sabi before. Na after dis show dem begin give Tatiana Pata den Nadia Bilokin' "Master of Folk Art" title.[2][7]

Same 1935 den1936, dem do special two-year school for decorative painting for Petrykivka. Tatiana Pata, as main teacher, tutor plenty artists wey later make Petrykivka painting modern art.[7] Dem dey call Tatiana Pata de founder of Petrykivka school of painting, but she just continue de tradition wey she learn from her grandmother.

Petrykivka artists insyd Kyiv[edit | edit source]

Kyiv porcelain vase plus petrykivka painting by Marfa Tymchenko

Between 1936 den1944, students of Tatiana Pata move go Kyiv, den Petrykivka painting enter industrial production for de first time for Kyiv Taras Shevchenko Souvenir Factory ("Київська сувенірна фабрика ім. Т. Г. Шевченка"). Dis na where dem begin use varnish-covered painting on black background, wey lata dem carry come back to Petrykivka village. During Soviet tym, dis style of painting na ein be de most popular.[7]

Artists begin use Petrykivka style for decorating porcelain too. Halyna Pavlenko start am for 1936 when she dey study for Kyiv School of Folk Arts. [8][9] For 1937 den 1938, she join by Vira Pavlenko, Marfa Tymchenko, den Pelahia Hlushchenko.

For 1944, Pavlenko sisters den Vira Klymenko-Zhukov improve de porcelain decoration for Kyiv Experimental Ceramic Art Factory. Marfa Tymchenko later join for 1953, den ein work dey very much recognized. Dem give de porcelain vases wey Marfa Tymchenko decorate as gifts to leaders lyk Richard Nixon, Mao Zedong, Fidel Castro, den Josip Broz Tito.[10]

Development from 1950 go 1980[edit | edit source]

For Petrykivka, textile production atelier start for 1929. Insyd 1958, dem make cooperative workshop from dat atelier wey produce varnished Petrykivka painted things. Artists for dat workshop include some of Tatiana Pata's best students lyk Hanna Isaieva, Yavdokha Kliupa, Maria Shyshats’ka, Nadia Shulyk, Ivan Zavhorodnii, Halyna Prudnikova, Oleksandra Pikush, Vira Tezyk, Nina Turchyn, Hanna Danyleiko, den from 1959, Zoia Kudish.

For 1961, de cooperative turn "Friendship" Factory of Petrikivka Painting ("Фабрика петриківського розпису «Дружба»"). Dem mainly make things lyk boxes den dishes from pressed sawdust, wey dem paint black, decorate, den then varnish. Fedir Panko be de factory artistic director till 1970. After him, na Vasyl' Sokolenko, Anatolii Chernus'kyi, Volodymyr Hlushchenko, den Serhii Dreshpak. People lyk Hanna Samars’ka den Yavdokha Kliupa join de artistic advisory council.

During Soviet time, de factory employ about 500 people. De souvenirs lyk plates, boxes, trays, den vases wey dem decorate for Petrykivka style, become popular den dem export am go 80 countries. For 2006, de factory close due to bankruptcy. In 2011, unknown people destroy am wey dem remove workshops den machines.[11][12][13][14][15]

For Petrykivka, dem create T. Pata Petrykivka Children’s Art School for 1958. Fedir Panko den Vasyl' Sokolenko, wey be Tatiana Pata students, na de first teachers for dis school. Dem teach dis art for de next set of artists while still working for Petrykivka Factory. Most of de Petrykivka artists during de second part of de Soviet time na dema students.[7][9][16]

Later, Valentyna Panko den Maria Pikush, wey graduate from de School, cam teach for der too. Pikush later cam turn de director for de school for 1995.

During de 1960s den ‘70s, Natalia Hlukhen’ka den Borys Butnyk-Sivers'kyi, wey be art historians, publish albums wey carry reproductions of Petrykivka paintings. De albums wey dem produce, plus plenty circulation, help spread Petrykivka painting style well for Soviet Ukraine.

For 1970, Fedir Panko start de Experimental Workshop of Petrykivka Painting ("Експериментальний цех петриківського розпису”) wey dey under Dnipropetrovsk National Union of Artists of Ukraine for de center of Petrykivka village. Dis workshop work mainly on wood den paper, wey dem use light background pass de black background wey de factory dey use. Artists for dis Workshop get more freedom den variety for dema work compared to de Factory, wey mainly dem artisans dey copy de works of de artistic directors.

Apart from Panko, artists for de Workshop dey include Hanna Isaieva, Nadia Shulyk, Nina Turchyn, Andrii Pikush, Maria Pikush, Tetiana Har’kava, Valentyna Deka, Lidia Bulavin, Maria Yanenko, Natalia Statyva-Zharko, Valentyna Panko, den Halyna Nazarenko.[12][16]

Recent history[edit | edit source]

For 1998, de Experimental Workshop become de foundation for Petrykiva Center of Folk Art wey Andrii Pikush dey direct. Till today, e still be de core of Petrikivka painting style. Dis Center gather about 40 top Petrykivka artists, wey dey include 25 wey be members of National Union of Artists of Ukraine den 7 Distinguished Folk Artists of Ukraine as of 2011.[7][16] Some well-known artists for dis place na Volodymyr Hlushchenko, Nina Turchyn, Valentyna Deka, Lidia Bulavin, Maria Yanenko, Valentyna Panko, den Halyna Nazarenko.[16]

Apart from de Center, plenty significant artists dey live for Petrykivka village wey no dey work for de Petrykivka Center. Plenty oda artists wey dem train for classical Petrykivka painting dey different cities for Ukraine, wey dem still dey develop de Petrykivka style.

Every year since 2007 for September, dem dey do regional festival of folk art wey dem call “Petrykivs’kyi Dyvotsvit” ("Wonder-Flower of Petrykivka"). Dis festival include market, workshops, exhibitions, den concerts. For 2013 den 2014, dem do de festival for Dnipro, den after dat, e dey happen for Petrikivka village.[17][18]

For 2012, Ukrainian Ministry of Culture recognize Petrykivka painting as part of dema intangible cultural heritage, den for December 2013, UNESCO add am for dema Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

For January 2013, dem register de “Petrykivka” trademark wey Liudmyla Horbulia design. Dem give am to de community of Petrykivka village den dema artisans make dem fit use am as symbol of authenticity.[19]

Technique den characteristics[edit | edit source]

Petrykivka painting dey mostly focus for plants top, especially flowers. Samtyms, dem paint de flowers lyk abstract shapes wey no necessarily resemble any specific plant. Oda tyms, dem paint common garden flowers lyk dahlias, asters, tulips, den roses, anaa wildflowers lyk camomile den cornflower. Dem fit also paint oda plants lyk vibernum berries, strawberries, den grapes. Acanthus leaves wey dem dey call "ferns" den flower buds sanso dey common for de paintings. Dem dey mix de plant designs plus birds, den samtyms animals den people wey dey look somewhat imaginative. Some designs fit also include de image of phoenix anaa firebird.[20] Traditionally, Petrykivka painting dey happen only on white backgrounds lyk white walls anaa paper. Buh modern artists begin dey use different background colors lyk black, blue, green, den red.

Petrykivka painting no dey show realistic perspective at all, e dey very two-dimensional. De design mostly revolve around one anaa more plant stems wey dem use join all de important parts of diepicture. Dis stems anaa branches no dey overlap, den plenty elements dey shown as silhouettes. Birds, animals, den people dey often show from de syd, while flowers dey face directly. Dem fit use just one brush stroke to show plenty things lyk petals, stems, den berries. Samtyms, for things lyk berries, artists fit use dema finger apply de paint, wey give am de round shape plus light center den dark edge.[21] Professional Petrykivka artists no dey use pre-drawn sketches wey dem no dey use measuring tools. Instead, dem plan de whole composition for dema mind before dem start work on am. Na only when dem don reason everything finish, na ein dem go begin paint am.[21]

Types of brush strokes[edit | edit source]

Petrykivka painting dey make use of four characteristic brush strokes:

  • “Hrebinets’” (“Comb") - brush stroke wey dey begin plus heavier pressure den thick line, wey dem fini plus lighter touch den thin line. So dem dey bell am secof series of such strokes dey look lyk hair comb.
  • “Zerniatko” (“Seed”) - brush stroke wey be de reverse of de “hrebinets’", plus initial light den final heavy pressure. Wen dem use such strokes for either syd of stem, de result dey resemble ear of wheat.
  • “Horishok” (“Nut") - edey consists of two “hrebinets’" strokes wey dem curve den place next to each oda. Filling de resulting central negative space plus “zerniatko” stroke dey produce form similar in shape to hazelnut.
  • “Perekhidnyi mazok” ("Transitional stroke”) - dem make by single brush plus two differently colored pigments. Dem dip dry brush first into one (e.g. green) den then anoda (e.g. yellow) paint. De result be line of yellow paint, wey gradually e go turn green[22]

Materials[edit | edit source]

Traditionally, pigments for Petrykivka painting komot from herbs, leaves, berries, den flowers, dem prepare wey dem dey use specific methods. Red cam from cherry juice, green from grasses den nightshades, deb blue from snowdrop flowers. Na dem obtain shades of yellow from sunflower petals, onion skins, den apple seedling bark. Na dis pigments be thin wey dey use egg yolk anaa milk, wey dem fix plus cherry sap anaa sugar from sugar beets. Synthetic dyes appear lata, den gouache wey na dem use watercolor dem use post-war. Na dem sanso dey use painting tools natural: brushes dem make from tree shoots, stems of marsh grasses (lyk rushes den cattails), den cat hair.[21]

Well-known artists for de Petrykivka tradition insyd[edit | edit source]

No get any historical record of Petrykivka painting before 20th century start, so dem no record de names of early artists. Na mostly secof of Dmytro Yavornytsky work, dem record de names of Petrykivka masters wey dey early 20th century (dem born for 1880s den 1890s), lyk Tatiana Pata, Nadia Bilokin', Yaryna Pylypenko, den Paraska Pavlenko. Na only dem be artists for dema generation wey people sabi dema works den dem dey preserve for museums plus attribution.[7][9]

Apart from that one, dem get some artists wey dem born for 1908-1919 wey learn de tradition for dema families (especially for de families of Paraska Pavlenko den Yaryna Pylypenko wey I mention before), but dem come develop dema creativity under de strong influence of Tatiana Pata. Dem artists include Hanna Isaieva (wey be Pylypenko before), Nadia Tymoshenko, Vasyl' Vovk, Vera Pavlenko, den Halyna Pavlenko (wey lata cam turn Pavlenko-Chernychenko).[7][8][9]

Na ebe true say chaw famous artists of dis generation be students of Tatiana Pata wey dem study for de Petrykivka Art School between 1936 den 1941. Some of dis artists dey include Fedir Panko, Vasyl' Sokolenko, Marfa Tymchenko, Vira Klymenko (lata Klymenko-Zhukova), Pelahia Hlushchenko, Yavdokha (Evdokia) Kliupa, Maria Shyshat'ska, Oleksandra Pikush, Ivan Zavhorodniy, Halyna Prudnikova (Zavhorodnia), Nadia Shulyk, Zoia Kudish, Vekla Kucherenko (Pata), Hanna Danyleiko, Nadia Pikush,den odas.[7][8][9]

Distinctive sotay de masters of de Petrykivka style na Anna Samara, wey be de only pesin wey dem know wey no be from de older generation of painters wey born den train for Petrykivka village. She sabi de style den technique for Kyiv, under de indirect influence of Petrykivka masters lyk Marfa Tymchenko, wey she cam continue to improve ein skills for de Kyiv Taras Shevchenko Souvenir Factory.[7][9]

Plenty, plenty of de next generation dem, dem learn Petrykivka painting under Fedir Panko den/anaa Vasyl' Sokolenko. Some of dem even learn from one of de oda master artists wey dem mention before. Dem dey include: Volodymyr Hlushchenko, Nina Turchyn (Shyshats’ka), Tamara Kudish, Nina Shulyk, Vira Tezyk, Anatolii Chernus'kyi, Nina Chernus’ka, Andrii Pikush, Maria Pikush, Uliana Skliar, Valentyna Panko, Valentyna Deka (Statyva), Lidia Bulavin (Statyva), Maria Yanenko (Statyva), Natalia Statyva-Zharko, Halyna Nazarenko, Tatiana Har'kava (Lapshyn), Liudmyla Horbulia, Olena Zinchuk, Yulia Nahai, Yaryna Nazarenko, Serhii Dreshpak, Valentyna Khomenko, Nina Borodina, Kateryna Tymoshenko, Tamara Teslenko, Natalia Kaliuha, Maria Kurin'ka (Bel’mas), Iryna Kibets', Olena Yarmoliuk, Olena Skytsiuk (daughter of Marfa Tymchenko), den chaw oda people.[7][16][9][23]

Sam oda important artists for dis generation na Valentyna Karpets’-Yermolaieva, Valentyna Milenko, Natalia Rybak, Liana Skliar, Tatiana Pata (Skliar), Tamara Vakulenko (Samars'ka), Oleksandr Vakulenko, Viktoriya Tymoshenko, Mykola Deka, Svitlana Bilenko, Natalia Maliarchuk, Volodymyr Padun, den chaw oda people.[7][9][13]

For insyd de current Petrykivka-style artists, dem active well well. People lyk Halyna Nazarenko,[12][24][25][26][27] Valentyna Panko,[12][28][29] Viktoria Tymoshenko,[23][30][31] Natalia Statyva-Zharko,[27][32] Olena Yarmoliuk,[27][33] den Natalia Maliarchuk.[33]

Petrykivka painting don often be family work, den chaw well-known Petrykivka artists (both olden days den modern) na people wey get well-known artists for dema immediate family. Some of de big “dynasties” na dem from Panko, Pikush, Statyva, den Skliar families. Sumetyms e no too clear, 'cause de ones wey carry de tradition pass na women wey fi don change dema surname afta marriage. E still dey complex because sam names wey be lyk say dem scarce, dey common for Petrykivka village, den two artists wey get de same name fit no be family at all.[7][9][16]

Gallery[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "UNESCO Culture Sector - Petrykivka decorative painting as a phenomenon of the Ukrainian ornamental folk art".
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Кара-Васильєва Т., Чегусова З. Декоративне мистецтво України ХХ століття. Київ: Либідь, 2005. 280 pp. (in Ukrainian)
  3. "Examples of Petrykivka painting on the UNESCO site". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 29 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Найден, О.С. (1989). Орнамент українського народного розпису (in Ukrainian). pp. 1–136.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Смолій, Ю.О. (2011). Хатнє малювання Петриківки другої половини ХІХ - першої третини ХХ століття (витоки, еволюція, художні особливості). : Автореферат дис... канд. наук (in Ukrainian). pp. 1–20.
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  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 Шестакова, О. І. (2016). Петриківський розпис: Книга-альбом (in Ukrainian). Kyiv: Мистецтво.
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  11. Фабрика «Дружба» (for Ukrainian insyd)
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  15. Глухенька Н. Петриківські розписи. Київ: Мистецтво, 1973. (For Ukrainian insyd)
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 Петриківка: Альбом репродукцій. Дніпропетровськ: Дніпрокнига, 2011. 232 с. (in Ukrainian)
  17. Відбувся перший обласний фестиваль народної творчості «Петриківський дивоцвіт» (for Ukrainian insyd)
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  23. 23.0 23.1 Музей Гетьманства - Родинна виставка Валентини Хоменко і Вікторії Тимошенко "Бережи, Боже, Україну!" (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
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  25. "Рукотвори  — Галина Назаренко" (in Ukrainian). «Рукотвори». Archived from the original on 15 July 2015.
  26. Майстриню з Петриківки прийняли до французької асоціації художників (in Ukrainian). «Рукотвори». Archived from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 "Петриківка з Мамаєм із гільз". umoloda.kyiv.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2023-12-05.
  28. Валентина Панко: "Петриківка — мистецтво сучасне, це однозначно" (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  29. Свобода, Радіо (2013-03-28). "У Дніпропетровську презентували роботи відомої петриківської майстрині Валентини Панко (ФОТО)". Радіо Свобода (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2023-12-05.
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  32. "Величезна білоцерківська писанка виставляється у Києві". 04563.com.ua - Сайт міста Біла Церква (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2023-12-05.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Проект "Петриківка - душа України" після Грузії завітав до Чернігова (in Ukrainian). Укрінформ. Archived from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.