Congo Free State

From Wikipedia
Congo Free State
historical country
Inception1 July 1885 Edit
Native labelÉtat indépendant du Congo Edit
Found byLeopold II of Belgium Edit
Official languageFrench Edit
ContinentAfrica Edit
CapitalVivi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Boma Edit
Coordinate location5°51′17″S 13°3′24″E Edit
Government ein basic formabsolute monarchy Edit
Office held by head of stateSovereign of the Congo Free State Edit
State ein headLeopold II of Belgium Edit
CurrencyCongolese franc, Belgian franc Edit
Own byLeopold II of Belgium Edit
Replaced byBelgian Congo Edit
Dey replaceInternational Association of the Congo, Tippu Tip's state Edit
Date dem dissolve, abolish anaa demolish2 April 1908 Edit
Has works in the collectionNational Museum of World Cultures Edit

De Congo Free State, dem san know am as de Independent State of the Congo (French: État indépendant du Congo), be de largest state den absolute monarchy for Central Africa from 1885 to 1908. Na ebe privately owned by den sam personal union with King Leopold II.[1][2] Na eno dey part of, nor na e dey belong to am, de Kingdom of Belgium, wey be de constitutional monarch. Leopold be able to seize de region wey na he dey convince sam European states for de Berlin Conference for Africa wey na he involve ein body for humanitarian den philanthropic work den no dey tax trade.[3] Via de International Association of de Congo, he fit lay claim to most of de Congo Basin. For 29 May 1885, after de closure of de Berlin Conference, de king cam talk say he plan make he name ein possessions "the Congo Free State", sam appellation wey dem no yet use for de Berlin Conference den wey dem officially replace "International Association of de Congo" For 1 August 1885.[4][5][6] De Congo Free State operate as separate nation from Belgium, for sam personal union plus ein King. Na de Free State be privately controlled by Leopold II, although he neva personally visit de state.[7]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Grant, J.; Barker, J., eds. (2009). "personal union". Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-538977-7. Retrieved 11 July 2023. A personal union is in existence when two sovereign states and separate international persons are linked together through the accidental fact that they have the same individual as monarch. Thus a personal union existed...from 1885 to 1908 between Belgium and the former Congo Free State.
  2. Lemarchand, Rene (28 April 2023) [1963]. Political Awakening in the Congo: The Politics of Fragmentation. Univ of California Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-520-33863-0.
  3. Gifford, Paul (1971). France and Britain in Africa. Imperial Rivalry and Colonial Rule. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 221–260. ISBN 9780300012897.
  4. Katzenellenbogen, S. (1996). "It didn't happen at Berlin: Politics, economics and ignorance in the setting of Africa's colonial boundaries.". In Nugent, P.; Asiwaju, A. I. (eds.). African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and Opportunities. London: Pinter. pp. 21–34.
  5. Cornelis, Sabine. 1991. "Stanley au service de Léopold II: La fondation de l'Etat Indépendant du Congo (1878-1885)". In H. M. Stanley: Explorateur au service du Roi, edited by Sabine Cornelis, 41-60. Tervuren: Royal Museum for Central Africa.
  6. Crowe, S.E. (1942). The Berlin West African Conference, 1884–1885. London: Longmans Green.
  7. "De koning in Kinshasa die nooit in Congo was [Slot]". MO* (insyd Dutch). Retrieved 19 February 2024.

Sources[edit | edit source]

Primary sources[edit | edit source]

You fi read further[edit | edit source]

Additional primary sources[edit | edit source]

  • Bulletin officiel / État indépendant du Congo (insyd French), Brussels, 1885–1907, OCLC 7625261 – via Académie royale des sciences d'outre-mer; also via HathiTrust.
  • Casement, Roger. Report of the British Consul, Roger Casement, on the Administration of the Congo Free State. Reprinted in full in Ó Síocháin, Séamas and Michael O'Sullivan, eds. (2004). The Eyes of Another Race: Roger Casement's Congo Report and 1903 Diary. University College Dublin Press. ISBN 1-900621-99-1.
  • The Congo Report of Commission of Inquiry (1906). New York.
  • Johnston, Harry (1908). George Grenfell and the Congo. 2 vols. London.
  • The reports of the Congo Reform Association, particularly the Memorial on the Present Phase of the Congo Question (1912). London.
  • Stanley, Henry Morton (1885). The Congo and the Founding of the Congo Free State. London.

External links[edit | edit source]