Jump to content

Morna (music)

From Wikipedia
music genre, type of dance
Subclass ofmusic of Cape Verde Edit
Indigenous toOslo Edit
Country of originCape Verde, Norway Edit
Intangible cultural heritage statusRepresentative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, Immateriell kulturarv Edit
Described at URLhttps://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/01469, https://ich.unesco.org/fr/RL/01469, https://ich.unesco.org/es/RL/01469 Edit

De morna (pronunciation for both Portuguese den Cape Verdean Creole be: [ˈmɔɾnɐ]) be sam music den dance genre from Cape Verde.

Lyrics usually dey for Cape Verdean Creole insyd, wey instrumentation often dey include cavaquinho, clarinet, accordion, violin, piano den guitar.

Dem widely dey consider Morna say ebe de national music of Cape Verde,[1] as ebe de fado give Portugal, de tango give Argentina, de merengue give Dominican Republic, de rumba give Cuba, den so on.

Na de best internationally known morna singer be Cesária Évora. Dem dey play Morna den oda genres of Cape Verdean music for Cape Verdean migrant communities wey dey abroad, especially for New England wey dey US, Portugal, de Netherlands, France, West Africa den parts of Latin America.

As sam music genre[edit | edit source]

As sam music genre, dem dey characterize morna by say eget lento tempo, sam 2-beat bar (samtyms 4)[2] den for ein most traditional form by say eget sam harmonic structure wey dey base for cycle of fifths top,[3] wey dem dey organize de lyrics structure by say musical strophes wey dey alternate plus sam refrain. De morna be almost always monotonic,[4] dat be say dem dey compose am for just one tonality. Compositions wey dey use more than one tonality be rare wey generally dem be cases of passing from sam minor go major tonality anaa vice versa.

Ein Harmonic structure[edit | edit source]

For ein most traditional form insyd, de morna dey obey sam cycle of fifths. De harmonic progression dey starts for sam chord (de tonic) of sam certain tonality insyd, de second chord be de lower fifth (de subdominant), de third chord be de same as de first wey de fourth chord be de upper fifth (de dominant seventh). Dese chords — tonic, dominant seventh, subdominant — get for Cape Verde insyd de popular names of “primeira”, “segunda” den “terceira” (first, second den third) respectively of de tonality for question insyd. For example, if dem dey perform de music for sam A minor tonality insyd, de A minor chord get de name “primeira de Lá menor” (A minor ein first), de E 7th chord get de name of “segunda de Lá menor” (A minor ein second) den de D minor chord hget de name of “terceira de Lá menor” (A minor ein third).

However, dis structure dey correspond give de most basic den most primary harmonic sequence of de morna. First, dem later enrich dis structure plus de so-called passing chords (see below under History). Second, dis structure be by no means mandatory. Several composers, specially recent composers, dey employ different chord progressions.

Ein Melodic structure[edit | edit source]

Rhythmic model of de morna, ± 60 bpm.

De melodic line of de morna dey vary chaw through de song,[3] plus ascending den descending note sequences, wey within sam bar de notes generally no get de same length. One frequent characteristic of de morna be de syncopation, more precisely, one note for de end of sam bar dey extend go de strong beat of de next bar. Dem dey accentuate de melody for de first beat den de last half-beat of de bar.

Dem dey structure de melody for verses insyd wey dem dey organize dem for strophes insyd. De main strophes dey alternate plus sam refrain strophe, wey dis alternation go fi get several models: ABABAB..., ABCBABCB..., ACBACB..., AABCCB..., etc. De melody of de refrain never be de same as de melody of de oda strophes.

Ein Themes[edit | edit source]

De theme of de morna dey vary, but certain subjects dey wey dem dey approach am plus chaw frequency. Besides universal subjects like love, dem typically dey talk about Cape Verdean subjects, such as departure abroad, de return, de saudade, love give de homeland den de sea. Na one of de great performers wey be responsible give dis thematic be poet/composer Eugénio Tavares wey introduce for de beginning of de 20th century de lyricism den de exploration of typical romanticism wey dem still dey use am today.

Ein Instrumentation[edit | edit source]

De main instrument wey dey associate plus de morna be de guitar, dem popularly dey bell am “violão” for Cape Verde insyd. For ein most simple form insyd, sam guitar be enough say ego provide de accompaniment for anoda solo instrument wey go fi be anoda guitar, sam violin (dem popularly dey bell am “rabeca” for Cape Verde insyd), de singer ein voice anaa any oda melodic instrument. De specific way wey dem dey take strum de strings for guitar top be popularly known as “mãozada” for Cape Verde insyd. De strumming of de morna dey articulate sam bass (dem dey play plus de thumb, wey edey mark de accentuation of de rhythm) plus chords (dem dey play plus de oda fingers, either for arpeggio insyd, rhythmically, anaa for combination of both insyd). You sana go fi perform morna sana for piano top, plus de left hand wey dey provide de bass den de accompaniment den de right hand wey dey provide de accompaniment den de melody.

As sam dance[edit | edit source]

As sam dance de morna be sam ballroom dance, wey dem dey dance for pairs insyd. De performers dey dance plus de arm den embrace de partner, wey plus de oda arm dem dey hold hands. Dem dey make de dancing through two body swings go one side for sam music ein bar insyd, wey for de next bar de swinging be for de oda side.

Ein History[edit | edit source]

Dem divide history of de morna go several periods,[3][5] scholars always no dey gree for demma body:

1st period: origins[edit | edit source]

Eno be known for sure wen den wer de morna appear. De oral tradition[6] dey give am for certain say de morna appear for Boa Vista Island for 18th century insyd, but no musicological records dey say ego prove dis. But wen Alves dos Reis talk say,[7] for se 19th century tym insyd, plus de invasion of polkas, mazurkas, galops, country dances den oda musical genres for Cape Verde insyd, dem no influence de morna, edey suggest say by dat tym na dem fully form morna already wey dem mature de musical genre.[8][9][10][11]

2nd period: Eugénio Tavares[edit | edit source]

For de beginning of de 20th century insyd, na de poet Eugénio Tavares be one of de main menners wey be responsible for giving morna de romantic character wey dey today. For de Brava island insyd, de morna pass through sam transformation, wey e acquire sam slower tempo than de Boa Vista morna, de poetry cam turn more lyricised plus themes wey dey focus mostly for love den feelings wey dem provoke by love.

3rd period: B. Leza[edit | edit source]

For de 1930s den de 1940s insyd, de morna gain special characteristics for São Vicente insyd. Na dem much dey appreciate de Brava style wey dem cultivate for all Cape Verde by dat tym (records dey about E. Tavares wey dem receive for apotheosis for S. Vicente island insyd[9] wey even de Barlavento composers rep for Sotavento Creole insyd,[5] probably secof de maintenance of de unstressed vowels for Sotavento Creoles insyd give chaw musicality). But specific conditions for S. Vicente such as de cosmopolitanism den openness go foreign influences bring sam enrichment give de morna.

Na one of de main menners wey be responsible for dis enrichment be composer Francisco Xavier da Cruz (a.k.a. B.Leza) wey under Brazilian music influence he introduce[3][5] de so-called passing chords, wey be popularly known as “meio-tom brasileiro” (Brazilian half-tone) for Cape Verde. Thanks give dese passing chords, dem no restrain de harmonic structure of de morna go de cycle of fifths, but e incorporate oda chords wey make de smooth transition go de main ones.

As sam example, you go fi enrich sam song for sam C major tonality dis way:

Basic chord sequence:
C F C G7
Chord sequence plus passing chords:
C C7 F Fm7♭5 C A7 Dm G7

Another example, but in an A minor tonality:

Basic chord sequence:
Am Dm Am E7
Chord sequence plus passing chords:
Am A7 Dm G7 Am F Bm7♭5 E7

Although edey look simple, dis introduction lef ein deep mark for morna top wey epass through later go de coladeira insyd.

Anoda innovation be say dis period slightly dey coincide plus de literary movement Claridade, dem consequently widen de thematic so say dem go include not only themes wey dey relate plus de Romanticism bat wey esana dey relate plus de Realism.

4th period: de 1950s go de 1970s[edit | edit source]

For dis period insyd, sam new musical genre, de coladeira, reach ein maturity wey chaw composers try dis novelty. Therefore, de years from de 1950s go de 1970s no bring big innovations for musical techniques insyd give de morna.[3][5]

5th period: recent years[edit | edit source]

Recent composers dey take advantage of chaw artistic freedom so say dem go take give de morna unusual characteristics.[5] Chaw recent mornas hardly dey follow de cycle of fifths scheme, great freedom for chord sequences dey, de musical strophes always no get sam rigid number of verses, for de melody insyd, de reminiscences of de lundum practically disappear, wey sam composers try dey fuse de morna plus oda musical genres.

Variants[edit | edit source]

Boa Vista morna[edit | edit source]

De Boa Vista morna be de oldest variant of de morna. Dem dey characterize am by say eget sam quicker tempo (andante ± 96 bpm) den sam rubato style, den by say ego be structurally simpler. De themes often dey talk about jokes, satires anaa social criticism. De melody accentuation be very close plus de lundum.[3]

Brava morna[edit | edit source]

De Brava morna dey de origin of de most known variety of morna today. Besides say eget sam slower tempo than de Boa Vista morna (lento ± 60 bpm), eget typical Romanticism characteristics, such as de use of rhymes, sam accentuated lyricism den sam chaw rigid metre. Composers still dey practice Brava style from Brava den Fogo.

São Vicente morna[edit | edit source]

De São Vicente morna be sam derivative of de Brava morna. Both get de same tempo, but for de S. Vicente morna insyd, dem enrich de chord sequences plus de passing chords. Dem sana widen de thematic so say ego include not only romantic themes wey de poetry no be so rigid. Neither dey make use of rhymes like de Brava morna.

Departing from de S. Vicente morna, one go fi witness from chaw recent den innovative composers give sam oda morna variants wey dem no systemize yet.[3]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Singer Cesaria Evora dies at the age of 70", BBC News, 2011-12-17, retrieved 2019-03-08
  2. Brito, M., Breves Apontamentos sobre as Formas Musicais existentes em Cabo Verde — 1998
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Martins, Vasco, Música Tradicional Cabo-verdiana Vol. I — A morna
  4. Sousa, P.e J. M. de, Hora di Bai — Capeverdean American Federation, Boston, 1973
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Gonçalves, C. F., Kab Verd Band — 2006
  6. avares, Eugénio, Mornas, Cantigas Crioulas — J. Rodrigues. E C. L. da Editora, 1932
  7. Alves dos Reis, J., «Subsídios para o estudo da morna» in Raízes — N.º 21, 1984
  8. Lima, A. G., A dança do landu (Dos antigos reinos do Kongo e de Ngola à Boa Vista)
  9. 9.0 9.1 Rodrigues, Moacyr e Isabel Lobo, A Morna na Literatura Tradicional — Instituto Cabo-verdiano do Livro, 1996
  10. Lopes, José, Jardim das Hespérides — Lisboa, 1929
  11. Freyre, Gilberto, Cabo Verde visto por Gilberto Freyre — Ed. I. N., Praia, 1956

You fi read further[edit | edit source]

  • The rough guide to the music of Cape Verde : morna, funáná, coladeira : music of sweet sorrow (compil. Phil Stanton), World music network, London,. Harmonia mundi, 2001
  • Cap Vert, anthologie 1959-1992 (Cape Verde, Anthology: 1952-1992), Buda musique, Paris, Universal (2 CD)
  • Cap-vert : un archipel de musiques, Radio-France, Paris ; Harmonia mundi, Arles, 2003
  • Timas, Lena, Magia d'morna : musique du Cap-Vert (Magic of Morna: Music of Cape Verde), Sunset-France, Mélodie, 2007

External links[edit | edit source]