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Akosombo Dam

From Wikipedia
Akosombo Dam
hydroelectric dam, hydroelectric power station
Year dem found am1961 Edit
Get usehydroelectricity Edit
Reservoir createdLake Volta Edit
CountryGhana Edit
Edey de administrative territorial entity insydAsuogyaman District Edit
Ein locationAkosombo Edit
Located in or next to body of waterVolta River Edit
Located in/on physical featureVolta River Edit
Coordinate location6°17′59″N 0°3′34″E Edit
Own byVolta River Authority Edit
OperatorVolta River Authority Edit
Date of official opening1965 Edit
Service entry1965 Edit

De Akosombo Dam, wey dem sanso dey bell am Volta Dam, be sam hydroelectric dam wey dey de Volta River top for southeastern Ghana wey dey Akosombo gorge insyd den part of de Volta River Authority.[1] De construction of de dam flood part of de Volta River Basin wey elead go de subsequent creation of Lake Volta. Lake Volta be de largest man-made lake for de world insyd by surface area. It covers 8,502 square kilometres (3,283 sq mi), wey be 3.6% of Ghana ein land area. Plus de volume of 148 cubic kilometers, Lake Volta be de world ein third largest man-made lake by volume; de largest wey be Lake Kariba wey get 185 cubic kilometers of water.[2]

Na de primary purpose of de Akosombo Dam be say ego provide electricity for de aluminium industry.[3] Na dem dey bell Akosombo Dam as "de largest single investment for de economic development plans of Ghana."[4] De dam be significant for providing de majority of both Togo den Benin ein electricity, although de construction of de Adjarala Dam (for Togo ein Mono River) dey hope say ego reduce dese countries' reliance for imported electricity top.[5] Na de dam ein original electrical output be 912 megawatts (1,223,000 hp), wey dem upgrade go 1,020 megawatts (1,370,000 hp) for sam retrofit project insyd wey dem fini for 2006 insyd.[6]

De flood wey create de Lake Volta reservoir displace chaw menners wey na eget significant impact for de local environment top,[7] edey include seismic activity wey lead go coastal erosion; sam hydrology wey echange cause microclimatic changes plus less rain den higher temperatures. De soil wey dey surround de lake be less fertile than de soil wey dey ein unders, wey heavy agricultural use dey require de use of fertilizers, wey elater dey lead am go eutrophication, wey cause, among others, de explosive growth of sam invasive weed wey dey render water navigation den transportation difficult, wey edey form sam habitat for de vectors of water-borne illnesses such as bilharzia, river blindness den malaria. Resettlement of de inhabitants wey edisplace prove complex wey for sam cases ebe unsuccessful; traditional farming practices disappear wey emake poverty increase.

Ein Design[edit | edit source]

Geologist Albert Kitson wey he conceive de dam for 1915 insyd, but dem no draw any plan till de 1940s insyd.[8] Dem propose de development of de Volta River Basin for 1949 insyd, bah secof na funds no chaw, de American company Volta Aluminum Company (Valco) lend Ghana money so say dem go fi construct de dam. Presido Kwame Nkrumah adopt de Volta River hydropower project.[4]

Ein Construction[edit | edit source]

Akosombo dam plus open spillways

For May 1960 insyd, de Ghana government call for tenders for construction of de hydroelectric dam. For 1961 insyd, sam Italian consortium, Impregilo wey na ecomplete de Kariba Dam, win de contract. For 1961 insyd, Ghana ein Parliament establish Volta River Authority (VRA) through de passage of de Volta River Development Act. Six Board members den Nkrumah as chairman wey structure VRA ein fundamental operations. VRA ein primary task be say ego manage de development of de Volta River Basin, wey na edey include de construction den supervision of de dam, de power station den de power transmission network. De VRA be responsible for de reservoir wey dem impound by de dam, fishing for de lake insyd, lake transportation den communication, den de welfare of menners wey dey surround de lake.[2]

Akosombo Dam for de reverse of sam 2007 1 Cedi specimen banknote

Ein Power generation[edit | edit source]

De dam dey provide electricity go Ghana den ein neighboring West African countries, wey dey include Togo den Benin.[9] Initially na 20% of Akosombo Dam ein electric output (wey dey serve 70% of national demand) be wat Ghanaians dey get for form of electricity, na dem dey generate de remaining 80% give Valco.[10]

Ein Impacts[edit | edit source]

De hydroelectric power plant for Lake Volta top

De Akosombo Dam dey benefit sam industrial den economic activities from de addition of lake transportation, fishing wey e increase, fresh farming activities for de shoreline, den tourism.[7]

Biological habitat[edit | edit source]

Lake Volta from space

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Akosombo Dam could serve Ghana for another 50 years if well maintained – Kweku Awotwi - MyJoyOnline.com". www.myjoyonline.com. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Fobil 2003
  3. Zakhary 1997
  4. 4.0 4.1 "History of Akosombo dam". Ghana Home Page. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  5. Europa Publications (2014). Africa South of the Sahara 2014. Routledge. p. 112. ISBN 9781857436983.
  6. "Akosombo Hydro Power Plant Retrofit". Volta River Authority. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2007.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Gyau-Boakye 2001
  8. Okoampa-Ahoofe, Kwame (16 July 2009). "The False Ghanaian History of Paa Kwesi Nduom". The Statesman. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  9. Suave 2002
  10. Kwame Okoampa-Ahoofe (28 August 2007). "NPP cuts sod for Bui Dam". Statesman online. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2007.