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Ghana

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Ghana
sovereign state, country
Part ofWest Africa, Africa, Economic Community of West African States, Sub-Saharan Africa Edit
Year dem found am1957 Edit
Official nameGhana, Ghana, la République du Ghana, Gana tingbani Edit
Native labelGhana, Gana, Gaana Edit
Short name🇬🇭 Edit
Dem name afterGhana Empire Edit
DemonymGhanaian Edit
Official languageEnglish Edit
AnthemGod Bless Our Homeland Ghana Edit
Cultureculture of Ghana Edit
Motto textFreedom and Justice, Rhyddid a Chyfiawnder Edit
ContinentAfrica Edit
CountryGhana Edit
CapitalAccra Edit
Located in time zoneUTC±00:00, Africa/Accra Edit
Located in or next to body of waterAtlantic Ocean Edit
Located in/on physical featureWest Africa Edit
Coordinate location8°1′48″N 1°4′48″W Edit
Coordinates of easternmost point6°6′45″N 1°11′58″E Edit
Coordinates of northernmost point11°10′12″N 0°16′12″W Edit
Coordinates of southernmost point4°44′23″N 2°5′31″W Edit
Coordinates of westernmost point6°37′28″N 3°15′34″W Edit
Highest pointMount Afadja Edit
Lowest pointGulf of Guinea Edit
Government ein basic formDemocracy Edit
Office held by head of statePresident of Ghana Edit
State ein headNana Akufo-Addo Edit
Office head of government holdPresident of Ghana Edit
Government ein headNana Akufo-Addo Edit
Executive bodyGovernment of Ghana Edit
Legislative bodyParliament of Ghana Edit
Central bankBank of Ghana Edit
CurrencyGhana cedi Edit
Dey share bother plusBurkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Togo Edit
Driving sideright Edit
Electrical plug typeAC power plugs and sockets: British and related types, BS 1363 Edit
Dey replaceDominion of Ghana, Gold Coast Colony Edit
Studied inGhana studies Edit
Dema official websitehttps://www.ghana.gov.gh/ Edit
HashtagGhana Edit
Top-level Internet domain.gh Edit
FlagFlag of Ghana Edit
Coat of armscoat of arms of Ghana Edit
Geography of topicgeography of Ghana Edit
Get characteristicfree country Edit
History of topichistory of Ghana Edit
Open data portalGhana Open Data Initiative Edit
Bibliographybibliography of Ghana Edit
Economy of topiceconomy of Ghana Edit
Demographics of topicdemographics of Ghana Edit
Mobile country code620 Edit
Country calling code+233 Edit
Trunk prefix0 Edit
Emergency phone number999, 191, 192, 193 Edit
GS1 country code603 Edit
Licence plate codeGH Edit
Maritime identification digits627 Edit
Unicode character🇬🇭 Edit
Category for mapsCategory:Maps of Ghana Edit
Map

Ghana officially be Republic of Ghana, be country wey dey West Africa insyd.[1] Edey start for de Gulf of Guinea den de Atlantic Ocean to de south, edey share border plus Ivory Coast for de west, Burkina Faso for de north, den Togo for de east.[2] Ghana dey cover area of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi),[3] wey dey span diverse biomes wey dey range from coastal savannas go tropical rainforests. Plus ova 31 million people.[4] De capital den largest city be Accra; other major cities be Kumasi, Tamale den Sekondi-Takoradi. Ghana be second country wey produce cocoa.

De first permanent state for present-day Ghana be de Bono state for de 11th century. Chaw kingdoms den empires emerge ova de centuries, na de most powerful be de Kingdom of Dagbon for de north[5][6] den de Ashanti Empire for de south insyd.[7]

De 15th century beginning, de Portuguese Empire, follow by chaw oda European powers, contest de area for trading rights, until de British ultimately establish control for de coast by de late 19th century. Dem follow over century of colonisation, Ghana in current borders take shape, wey encompass four separate British colonial territories: Gold Coast, Ashanti, de Northern Territories den British Togoland. Dem unify dis as independent dominion for de Commonwealth of Nations for 6 March 1957, wey come turn de first colony for sub-Saharan Africa insyd wey achieve sovereignty.[8][9][10] Ghana subsequently come turn influential for decolonisation efforts den de Pan-African movement insyd.[11]

Ghana be multi-ethnic country plus diverse population, linguistic den religious groups;[12] while de Akan be de bola ethnic group, dem dey constitute plurality per. De majority of Ghanaians be Christian (71.3%), plus close to fifth be Muslim den tenth dey practice traditional faiths anaa no get religion.[13] President wey be both head of state den head of government dey lead Ghana wey be unitary constitutional democracy.[14] Since 1993, ein maintain one of de freest den most stable governments for de continent top den dey perform relatively well for metrics of healthcare insyd, economic growth, den human development.[11][15] Ghana consequently dey enjoy significant influence for West Africa insyd[16] wey dem highly integrate am for international affairs insyd, e be member for de Non-Aligned Movement, de African Union, de Economic Community of West African States, de Group of 24, den de Commonwealth of Nations.[17]

Etymology

Ghana dey mean "strong warrior king" den esan be de title dem take give kings wey dey den tyms Ghana Empire for de West Africa—so you no go conf plus Ghana today, for de empire dey further north, in modern-day Mali, Senegal den southern Mauritania, as well as in de region of Guinea.[18] Dem know Ghana for ein large gold usage den, dem later name am de Land of Gold.[19]

History

Medieval kingdoms

Most of wat be now Ghana na dem inhabit insyd de Middle Ages den de Age of Discovery by different ethnic groups. De earliest known kingdoms to emerge for de modern Ghana be de Mole-Dagbani states.[20] De Mole-Dagomba cam plus de horse ein back from de present-day Burkina Faso under single leader, Naa Gbewaa. Wid dema advanced weapons den based for central authority, dey easily invade den occupy de lands of de local people wey dem dey ruled by de Tindaamba (singular: tindana),[21] established dema selves as de rulers ova de locals, wey dem make Gambaga dema capital. De death of Naa Gbewaa cause succession among ein kiddies, sam of dem break off wey dem found dema separate states wey dey include Mamprugu den Nanung. While Gbewaa dey still alive, ein daughter Yennenga travel north den found de Mossi Kingdoms, wey constitute de majority of present day Burkina Faso. Oda kingdoms dat emerge from Dagbon dey include de Bouna Kingdom of Ivory Coast, den de Dagaaba states of de Upper West Region.

Although de present-day Ghana has experienced bonch population movements, de Akan-speaking manners began dema move toward de end of de 15th century.[20][22] By de early 16th century, na de Akans be firmly establish for de Akan state wey dem bell am Bonoman, for which de Bono den Ahafo regions wey dem name am.[20][23] From de 17th century, de Akans komot from wat dem dey believe to be de Bonoman area, to create several Akan states, mainly as dem dey do gold trading.[24] Dese states dey include Bonoman (Bono den Ahafo regions), Ashanti (Ashanti Region), Denkyira (Western North region), Mankessim Kingdom (Central region), den Akwamu (Eastern region).[20] By de 19th century, de territory for de southern part of Ghana dey include de Kingdom of Ashanti, ebe one of de influential states for de sub-Saharan Africa prior to de begining of colonialism. De govament of de Ashanti Empire operate first as loose network den dem eventually centralise am wid an advanced, highly specialise bureaucracy centre for dema capital city wey ebe Kumasi.[20] Prior to Akan contact plus de Europeans, de Akan manners create dema advanced economy wey edey base principally for gold den gold bar commodities den trade plus de states for Africa.[20][25]

De Ga-Dangme den Ewe migrate westward from south-western Nigeria secof de pressure wey dey from incessant tribal wars. De Ewe migrate wid dema Gbe-speaking kinsmen den ein transition, dem settled for Ketou insyd Benin Republic, Tado insyd Togo den wid Nortsie insyd Togo as dema final dispersal point. Dema dispersal from Nortsie be necessitated by dema high handed rule of King Agorkorli (Agor Akorlie). De Ga- Dangme occupy de Greater Accra Region den parts of de Eastern Region, while de Ewe occupy de Volta Region as well as dema neighbouring Togo, Benin Republic den Nigeria (around Badagry area).

European contact den colonialism

De Akans trade plus European states as dem begin after de contact plus de Portuguese insyd de 15th century.[26] Early European contact by de Portuguese manners who came to de Gold Coast region insyd de 15th century to cam trade den san establish de Portuguese Gold Coast (Costa do Ouro), dis dey focus on de extensive availability of gold.[27] De Portuguese build trading lodge for de coastal settlement wey dem call am Anomansah (de perpetual drink) wey dem renamed am São Jorge da Mina.[27] Insyd 1481, King John II for Portugal commission Diogo de Azambuja make he cam build de Elmina Castle, wey dem plete am in three years tym.[27] By 1598, de Dutch join de Portuguese for de gold trade, as dem establish de Dutch Gold Coast (Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) wey dem build forts for de Fort Komenda den Kormantsi.[28] Insyd 1617, de Dutch capture de Elmina Castle from de Portuguese den Axim insyd 1642 (Fort St Anthony).[28]

Oda European traders san join for de gold trading by de mid-17th century, most notably de Swedes, dem establish de Swedish Gold Coast (Svenska Guldkusten), den Denmark–Norway, establishing den Danish Gold Coast (Danske Guldkyst or Dansk Guinea).[29] In addition to de gold trade, European traders san participate insyd de Atlantic slave trade for dis area.[30] More dan 30 forts den castles wey na dem build by de merchants for dat tym. De Germans san establish de Brandenburger Gold Coast anaa Groß Friedrichsburg).[31] Insyd 1874, de Great Britain establish control over sam parts for de country, wey dem assign dese areas as dema status for de British Gold Coast.[32] Plenty military engagements occur for der between de British colonial powers den de various Akan nation-states. De Kingdom for Ashanti defeat de British few tyms for de 100-year-long Anglo-Ashanti wars buh dem eventually lost plus de War of de Golden Stool insyd 1900.[33][34]

Transition to independence

Insyd 1947, de newly formed United Gold Coast Convention wey na "The Big Six" lead dey call for "self-government widin de shortest possible tym" as de 1946 Gold Coast legislative election dey cam.[29][35] Kwame Nkrumah, Ghanaian nationalist wey lead Ghana from 1957 to 1966 as de country ein first prime minister den presido, dem form de Convention People's Party insyd 1949 wid dema motto "self-government now".[29] De party com initiate "positive action" campaign wey dey involve non-violent protests, strikes den non-cooperation plus de British authorities. Dem arrest Nkrumah den sentence am go one year imprisonment as dat tym. Insyd de Gold Coast ein 1951 general election, dem elect am go to Parliament den release am from prison wey he cam turn de leader for govament business.[29] He cam turn de prime minister insyd 1952. He improve de infrastructure for de country, wey he begin policy of Africanisation.

On 6 March 1957 at midnight, de Gold Coast, Ashanti, de Northern Territories, den British Togoland cam unify as one single independent dominion widin de British Commonwealth under de name Ghana.[36] Dis dem do am under de Ghana Independence Act 1957. De current flag of Ghana, wey dey consist for colours red, gold, green, den black star, dey date back to ein unification.[37] Theodosia Okoh wey design am;[38] de red dey represent de blood wey dem shed towards independence; de gold dey rep de industrial minerals wealth for Ghana; de green dey symbolize de rich grasslands for Ghana, den de black star dey symbolize for Ghanaian people den African emancipation.

Insyd 1 July 1960, dey follow de Ghanaian constitutional referendum den Ghanaian presidential election, Nkrumah declare Ghana republic wey he assume de presidency.[8][9][39][29] 6 March be de nation ein Independence Day, den 1 July celebrate as Republic Day.[40][41] At de tym of independence Nkrumah declare, "My first objective be say I go abolish from Ghana poverty, ignorance, den disease. We for measure wona progress by de improvement for de health of wona people; by de number of kiddies for school insyd, den by de quality for wona education; by de availability of water den electricity insyd wona towns den villas; den by de happiness wey wona people take to manage wona own affairs. De welfare of wona people be wona chief pride, den ebe dat wey my govament go take ask to be judged".[42]

Nkrumah lead authoritarian regime for Ghana, as he dey repress oda political opposition den conduct elections dat no be free den fair.[43][44][45][46][47] Insyd 1964, constitutional amendment make Ghana one-party state, wid Nkrumah as presido for life of both de nation den ein own party.[48]

Nkrumah be de first African head of state wey go promote concept of Pan-Africanism, wey he go introduce for ein studies for Lincoln University, Pennsylvania insyd de United States, at dat tym be wen Marcus Garvey make popular for ein "Back to Africa Movement".[29] Nkrumah merge de teachings of Garvey, Martin Luther King Jr. den naturalise am to Ghanaian scholar W. E. B. Du Bois into de formation of 1960s Ghana.[29] Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, as dem cam know am, play instrumental part for de founding of de Non-Aligned Movement, den establishing de Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute wey he take teach ein ideologies for communism den socialism.[49] Ein life achievements wey dem take recognise by Ghanaians during ein centenary birthday celebration, den de day wey dem institute as public holiday for Ghana (Founders' Day).[50]

Operation Cold Chop den aftermath

Na dem subsequently overthrow de govament of Nkrumah by coup by de Ghana Armed Forces wey code-named am as "Operation Cold Chop".[51][52] Dis occur while Nkrumah dey abroad plus Zhou Enlai for de People's Republic of China, for fruitless mission go Hanoi insyd Vietnam make he help end de Vietnam War. De coup take place for 24 February 1966, as Colonel Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka den Brigadier Akwasi Afrifa lead am.[53] Dem form de National Liberation Council, wey na Lieutenant General Joseph A. Ankrah chair am.[54]

Series of military wey dey alternate den civilian govaments, often affect by economic instabilities,[55] rule Ghana from 1966 to 1981, wey end plus de ascension to power of Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings of de Provisional National Defence Council insyd 1981.[56] Dese changes result in for de suspension of de Constitution of Ghana insyd 1981 wey dem ban political parties for de country insyd.[57] De economy soon decline, so Rawlings negotiate structural adjustment plan, wey change chaw old economic policies, den economic growth dem recover during de mid-1980s.[57] Fresh constitution wey restore multi-party system politics wey dem promulgate am go presidential election for de 1992; Rawlings wey dem elect am as presido of Ghana for dat tym, den again for de general election for 1996.[58]

At least 1,000 den as many as 2,000 people wey dem kill dem during de conflict between de Konkomba den oda ethnic groups such as de Nanumba, Dagomba den Gonja, while 150,000 people dem displace as part of dema tribal war for de Northern Ghana insyd 1994.[59]

21st century

Winning de 2000 general election, na dem swear John Kufuor wey rep New Patriotic Party for office as presido for Ghana for 7 January 2001 den attain de presidency den again for de 2004 election, wey edey mean say he serve for two terms (de term limit) as presido for Ghana den thus mark am de first tym under de fourth republic wey de power transfer from one legitimately elected head of state den head of govament go anoda.[58]

Nana Akufo-Addo, de ruling party candidate, go loose for very close election by John Atta Mills wey rep National Democratic Congress following de 2008 general election.[60][61] Mills die secof natural causes wey ein Vice Pee John Mahama succeed am for 24 July 2012.[62] Following de 2012 general election, Mahama cam turn presido,[63] wey dem describe say Ghana get "stable democracy".[64][65] As result for de 2016 general election,[66] Nana Akufo-Addo cam turn presido for 7 January 2017.[67] Dem san re-elect am after tightly contested election for 2020.[68]

For 11 June 2021, Ghana inaugurate Green Ghana Day as edey aim say dem go plant 5 million trees in concentrating effort make dem preserve de country ein cover for de rainforest so say dem go combat deforestation.[69]

Geography

Ghana dey for de Gulf of Guinea, few degrees per north of de Equator, therefore dey give am warm climate.[70] Ghana get area size of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi)[71] wey e get Atlantic coastline wey dey stretch 560 kilometres (350 miles) for de Gulf of Guinea insyd de Atlantic Ocean to ein south.[70] Dodi Island den Bobowasi Island be close plus de south coast.[72] Edey lie between latitudes 4°45'N den 11°N, den longitudes 1°15'E and 3°15'W. De prime meridian dey pass thru Ghana, specifically thru Tema.[70] Ghana be geographically closer to de "centre" for de Earth insyd dan any oda country, since ebe notional centre, (0°, 0°) dey locate for de Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 mi) off de south-east coast for Ghana.[73]

Grasslands mix plus south coastal shrublands den forests dey dominate Ghana, plus forest wey dey extend northward wey from de coast 320 kilometres (200 miles) den eastward for maximum of about 270 kilometres (170 miles) wid several locations for mining of industrial minerals den timber.[70] Ghana be de home for five terrestrial ecoregions: Eastern Guinean forests, Guinean forest–savanna mosaic, West Sudanian savanna, Central African mangroves, den Guinean mangroves.[74] Eget 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index wey mean say score of 4.53/10, wey dem rank am de 112th globally out of 172 countries.[75]

De White Volta River den ein tributary Black Volta, flow south thru Ghana to Lake Volta, de world ein third-largest reservoir by ein volume den largest by surface area, dem form secof hydroelectric Akosombo Dam,[76] wey dem plete am for 1965.[77] De Volta flows out of Lake Volta into de Gulf of Guinea.[78] De northernmost part of Ghana be Pulmakong[79] den de southernmost part of Ghana be Cape Three Points.[70]

Volta Region: Longest mountain range for Ghana-Akwapim Togo ranges

  • Mt Afadja- highest mountain for Ghana
  • Amedzofe- Mt Gemi- waterfall den canopy walk.
  • Golden sandy beaches wey dey stretch from Anyanui to Aflao
  • Aflao: de eastern gateway to Ghana wey dey border Lome, de Togolese capital
  • Keta- Fort Prizenstein, de former Danish slave trading post. Site wey dem proposed for Keta Port. De town plus de most promising den expanding tourism potential for Ghana
Landmarks, borders, den regions
Coastal Plain Accra, Apam, Cape Coast, Elmina, Kakum National Park, Kokrobite, Nzulezo, Sekondi-Takoradi, Ada Foah De Gulf of Guinea coastal plain plus de seat of government den capital city, castles den forts den rainforest
Ashanti-Kwahu Koforidua, Kumasi, Obuasi, Sunyani Forested hills den de Kingdom of Ashanti
Volta Basin Tamale Lake Volta, de river system wey dey feed am den Ghana eastern border crossing
Northern Plains Wa, Bolgatanga, Mole National Park Savanna plains den north Ghana trade route den border crossing
Settlements
Accra Seat of Government den Capital city.
Bolgatanga Paga Crocodile Pond location.
Cape Coast Cape Coast Castle be UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Elmina Coastal town plus Elmina Castle
Koforidua Aburi Botanical Gardens location.
Kumasi Traditional centre of de Kingdom of Ashanti.
Obuasi World ein 9th largest gold mine location; den Mining town.
Sekondi-Takoradi Surfing beaches such as Busua Beach, den UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Tamale Largest settlement insyd de Kingdom of Dagbon den gateway to Mole National Park.
Yendi Traditional Capital of de Kingdom of Dagbon den seat of Yaa Naa.

Climate

De climate Ghana dey fall under be tropical, wey eget two main seasons: de wet season den de dry season.[80] Ghana dey sit for de intersection of three hydro-climatic zones.[81] Changes for rainfall, weather conditions den sea-level rise affect de salinity for de coastal waters. Dis dem expect to negatively affect both farming den fisheries.[82] De national economy dey stand make e suffer from de impacts of climate change sake of ein dependence for de climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture, energy, den forestry.

Insyd 2015, de govament produce document wey dem title am "Ghana's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution."[83] Following dat, Ghana sign de Paris Climate Agreement insyd 2016.

Demographics

Languages

English be de official language of Ghana.[84][85] Additionally, eleven languages dey wey get de status of government-sponsored languages:

  • Akan languages (Asante Twi, Akuapem Twi, Fante wey get high degree of mutual intelligibility, den Nzema, wey be less intelligible plus de above)
  • Dangme
  • Ewe
  • Ga
  • Guan
  • Kasem
  • Mole-Dagbani languages (Dagaare den Dagbanli)[86][87]

Of dese, Asante Twi be de most widely spoken.[88]

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You fi read further

  • Arhin, Kwame, The Life and Work of Kwame Nkrumah (Africa Research & Publications, 1995)
  • Babatope, Ebenezer, The Ghana Revolution: From Nkrumah to Jerry Rawlings (Fourth Dimension Publishing, 1982)
  • Birmingham, David, Kwame Nkrumah: Father Of African Nationalism (Ohio University Press, 1998)
  • Boafo-Arthur, Kwame, Ghana: One Decade of the Liberal State (Zed Books, 2007)
  • Briggs, Philip, Ghana (Bradt Travel Guide) (Bradt Travel Guides, 2010)
  • Clark, Gracia, African Market Women: Seven Life Stories from Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2010)
  • Davidson, Basil, Black Star: A View of the Life and Times of Kwame Nkrumah (James Currey, 2007)
  • Falola, Toyin, and Salm, Stephen J, Culture and Customs of Ghana (Greenwood, 2002)
  • Grant, Richard, Globalizing City: The Urban and Economic Transformation of Accra, Ghana (Syracuse University Press, 2008)
  • Hadjor, Kofi Buenor, Nkrumah and Ghana (Africa Research & Publications, 2003)
  • Hasty, Jennifer, The Press and Political Culture in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
  • James, C.L.R., Kwame Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution (Allison & Busby, 1977)
  • Kuada, John, and Chachah Yao, Ghana. Understanding the People and their Culture (Woeli Publishing Services, 1999)
  • Miescher, Stephan F, Making Men in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
  • Milne, June, Kwame Nkrumah, A Biography (Panaf Books, 2006)
  • Nkrumah, Kwame, Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (International Publishers, 1971)
  • Utley, Ian, Ghana – Culture Smart!: the essential guide to customs & culture (Kuperard, 2009)
  • Various, Ghana: An African Portrait Revisited (Peter E. Randall Publisher, 2007)
  • Younge, Paschal Yao, Music and Dance Traditions of Ghana: History, Performance and Teaching (Mcfarland & Co Inc., 2011)

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