Ghana officially be Republic of Ghana, ebe country wey dey West Africa insyd. Edey start for de Gulf of Guinea den de Atlantic Ocean to de south, edey share border plus Ivory Coast in de west, Burkina Faso in de north, den Togo in de east. Ghana dey cover area of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), wey dey span diverse biomes wey dey range from coastal savannas go tropical rainforests. Plus over 31 million people. De capital den largest city be Accra; other major cities be Kumasi, Tamale den Sekondi-Takoradi.Ghana be second country wey produce cocoa.
De first permanent state for present-day Ghana be de Bono state for de 11th century. Chaw kingdoms den empires emerge ova de centuries, na de most powerful be de Kingdom of Dagbon for de north den de Ashanti Empire for de south insyd.
De 15th century beginning, de Portuguese Empire, follow by chaw oda European powers, contest de area for trading rights, until de British ultimately establish control for de coast by de late 19th century. Dem follow over century of colonisation, Ghana in current borders take shape, wey encompass four separate British colonial territories: Gold Coast, Ashanti, de Northern Territories den British Togoland. Dem unify dis as independent dominion for de Commonwealth of Nations for 6 March 1957, wey come turn de first colony for sub-Saharan Africa insyd wey achieve sovereignty. Ghana subsequently come turn influential for decolonisation efforts den de Pan-African movement insyd.
Ghana be multi-ethnic country plus diverse population, linguistic den religious groups; while de Akan be de bola ethnic group, dem dey constitute plurality per. De majority of Ghanaians be Christian (71.3%), plus close to fifth be Muslim den tenth dey practice traditional faiths or no get religion. President wey be both head of state den head of government dey lead Ghana wey be unitary constitutional democracy. Since 1993, e maintain one of de freest den most stable governments for de continent top den dey perform relatively well for metrics of healthcare insyd, economic growth, and human development. Ghana consequently dey enjoy significant influence for West Africa insyd wey dem highly integrate am for international affairs insyd, e be member for de Non-Aligned Movement, de African Union, de Economic Community of West African States, de Group of 24, den de Commonwealth of Nations.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
Ghana dey mean "strong warrior king" den esan bi de title dem take give kings wey dey den tyms Ghana Empire for de West Africa—so you no go conf plus today's Ghana, for de empire dey further north, in modern-day Mali, Senegal den southern Mauritania, as well as in de region of Guinea. Them know Ghana for ein large gold usage den, dem later name am de Land of Gold
History[edit | edit source]
Medieval kingdoms[edit | edit source]
Most of wat bi now Ghana was inhabited in de Middle Ages den de Age of Discovery by different ethnic groups. De earliest known kingdoms to emerge for de modern Ghana bi de Mole-Dagbani states. De Mole-Dagomba came plus de horse ein back from de present-day Burkina Faso under a single leader, Naa Gbewaa. Wid demma advanced weapons den based on a central authority, dey easily invade den occupy de lands of de local people wey dem dey ruled by de tendamba (land god priests), established demma selves as de rulers over de locals, den made Gambaga demma capital. De death of Naa Gbewaa caused succession among ein kiddies, some of dem broke off den founded demma separate states including Mamprugu den Nanung. While Gbewaa was still alive, ein daughter Yennenga travelled north den founded de Mossi Kingdoms, who constitute de majority of present day Burkina Faso. Oda kingdoms dat emerged from Dagbon include de Bouna Kingdom of Ivory Coast, den de Dagaaba states of de Upper West Region.
Although de present-day Ghana has experienced bonch population movements, de Akan-speaking manners began demma move toward de end of de 15th century. By de early 16th century, de Akans were firmly established for de Akan state called Bonoman, for which de Bono den Ahafo regions wey dem name am. From de 17th century, de Akans comot from wat we dey believe to bi de Bonoman area, to create several Akan states, mainly as dem dey do gold trading. Dese states dey include Bonoman (Bono den Ahafo regions), Ashanti (Ashanti Region), Denkyira (Western North region), Mankessim Kingdom (Central region), den Akwamu (Eastern region). By de 19th century, de territory for de southern part of Ghana dey include de Kingdom of Ashanti, ebi one of de influential states for de sub-Saharan Africa prior to de begining of colonialism. De govament of de Ashanti Empire operated first as a loose network den dem eventually centralised am wid an advanced, highly specialised bureaucracy centred for demma capital city wey ebi Kumasi. Prior to Akan contact plus de Europeans, de Akan manners created demma advanced economy wey edey based on principally gold den gold bar commodities den traded plus de states for Africa.
De Ga-Dangme den Ewe migrated westward from south-western Nigeria sake of de pressure wey dey from incessant tribal wars. De Ewe migrated wid demma Gbe-speaking kinsmen den ein transition, dem settled for Ketou insyd Benin Republic, Tado insyd Togo den wid Nortsie insyd Togo as demma final dispersal point. Demma dispersal from Nortsie bi necessitated by demma high handed rule of King Agorkorli (Agor Akorlie). De Ga- Dangme occupy de Greater Accra Region den parts of de Eastern Region, while de Ewe occupied de Volta Region as well as demma neighbouring Togo, Benin Republic den Nigeria (around Badagry area).
European contact den colonialism[edit | edit source]
De Akans traded plus European states as dem began after de contact with de Portuguese insyd de 15th century. Early European contact by de Portuguese manners who came to de Gold Coast region insyd de 15th century to com trade den san establish de Portuguese Gold Coast (Costa do Ouro), dis bi focused on de extensive availability of gold. De Portuguese built a trading lodge for de coastal settlement wey dem call am Anomansah (de perpetual drink) wey dem renamed am São Jorge da Mina. Insyd 1481, King John II for Portugal commissioned Diogo de Azambuja to com build de Elmina Castle, wey dem completed am in de three years tym. By 1598, de Dutch had joined de Portuguese in for de gold trade, as dem establish de Dutch Gold Coast (Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) den dem built forts for de Fort Komenda den Kormantsi. Insyd 1617, de Dutch captured de Elmina Castle from de Portuguese den Axim insyd 1642 (Fort St Anthony).
Odar European traders san joine for de gold trading by de mid-17th century, most notably de Swedes, dem establish de Swedish Gold Coast (Svenska Guldkusten), den Denmark–Norway, establishing den Danish Gold Coast (Danske Guldkyst or Dansk Guinea). In addition to de gold trade, European traders san participated insyd de Atlantic slave trade for dis area. More dan 30 forts den castles were built by de merchants for dat tym. De Germans san established de Brandenburger Gold Coast or Groß Friedrichsburg). Insyd 1874, de Great Britain established control over some parts for de country, wey dem assign dese areas as demma status for de British Gold Coast. Plenty military engagements occurred for dare between de British colonial powers den de various Akan nation-states. De Kingdom for Ashanti defeated de British a few tyms for de 100-year-long Anglo-Ashanti wars buh dem eventually lost plus de War of de Golden Stool insyd 1900.
Transition to independence[edit | edit source]
Insyd1947, de newly formed United Gold Coast Convention led by "The Big Six" call for "self-government widin de shortest possible tym" as de 1946 Gold Coast legislative election dey com. Kwame Nkrumah, a Ghanaian nationalist who led Ghana from 1957 to 1966 as de country's first prime minister den president, formed de Convention People's Party insyd 1949 wid demma motto "self-government now". De party com initiate a "positive action" campaign wey edey involve non-violent protests, strikes den non-cooperation plus de British authorities. Dem arrested Nkrumah den sentenced am go one year imprisonment as dat tym. Insyd de Gold Coast's 1951 general election, dem elected am go to Parliament den release am from prison to become de leader for govament business. He became de prime minister insyd 1952. He improve de infrastructure for de country, den ein Africanisation policies created am better career opportunities for Ghanaians.
On 6 March 1957 at midnight, de Gold Coast, Ashanti, de Northern Territories, den British Togoland com unified as one single independent dominion widin de British Commonwealth under de name Ghana. Dis dem do am under de Ghana Independence Act 1957. De current flag of Ghana, wey dey consist for colours red, gold, green, den a black star, dates back to ein unification. Ewas designed by Theodosia Okoh; de red dey represent de blood wey dem shed towards independence; de gold dey rep de industrial minerals wealth for Ghana; de green dey symbolises de rich grasslands for Ghana, den de black star dey symbolize for Ghanaian people den African emancipation.
Insyd 1 July 1960, following de Ghanaian constitutional referendum den Ghanaian presidential election, Nkrumah declared Ghana a republic den assumed de presidency. 6 March bi de nation's ein Independence Day, den 1 July celebrated as Republic Day. At de tym of independence Nkrumah declared, "My first objective bi say I go abolish from Ghana poverty, ignorance, den disease. We for measure wanna progress by de improvement for de health of wanna people; by de number of kiddies for school insyd, den by de quality for wanna education; by de availability of water den electricity insyd wanna towns den villas; den by de happiness wey wanna people take to manage wanna own affairs. De welfare of wanna people bi wanna chief pride, den ebi dat wey my govament go take ask to be judged".
Nkrumah led an authoritarian regime for Ghana, as he dey repress oda political opposition den conducted elections dat no bi free den fair. Insyd 1964, a constitutional amendment made Ghana a one-party state, wid Nkrumah as wanna president for life of both de nation den ein own party.
Nkrumah bi de first African head of state wey go promote concept of Pan-Africanism, which wey he go introduce for ein studies for Lincoln University, Pennsylvania insyd de United States, at dat tym bi wen Marcus Garvey make popular for ein "Back to Africa Movement". Nkrumah merged de teachings of Garvey, Martin Luther King Jr. den naturalised am to Ghanaian scholar W. E. B. Du Bois into de formation of 1960s Ghana. Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, as he became known, played an instrumental part for de founding of de Non-Aligned Movement, den in establishing de Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute wey he take teach ein ideologies for communism den socialism. Ein life achievements wey we take recognised by Ghanaians during ein centenary birthday celebration, den de day wey dem instituted as a public holiday for Ghana (Founders' Day).
Operation Cold Chop and aftermath[edit | edit source]
De govament of Nkrumah was subsequently overthrown by a coup by de Ghana Armed Forces wey code-named am as "Operation Cold Chop". Dis occurred while Nkrumah dey abroad plus Zhou Enlai for de People's Republic of China, on a fruitless mission to Hanoi insyd Vietnam to help end de Vietnam War. De coup took place on 24 February 1966, as edey led by Colonel Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka den Brigadier Akwasi Afrifa. De National Liberation Council was formed, wey ewas chaired by Lieutenant General Joseph A. Ankrah.
A series of alternating military den civilian govaments, often affected by economic instabilities, ruled Ghana from 1966 to 1981, ending plus de ascension to power of Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings of de Provisional National Defence Council insyd 1981. Dese changes resulted in for de suspension of for de Constitution of Ghana insyd 1981 den de banning of political parties for de country insyd. De economy soon declined, so Rawlings negotiated a structural adjustment plan, changing many old economic policies, and economic growth recovered during the mid-1980s. A new wid ein constitution restoring multi-party system politics wey dem promulgated am go presidential election for de 1992; Rawlings wey dem elected am as president of Ghana as at dat tym, den again for de general election for 1996.
At least 1,000 den as many as 2,000 people wey dem killed dem during de conflict between de Konkomba den oda ethnic groups such as de Nanumba, Dagomba den Gonja, while 150,000 people were displaced as part of demma tribal war for de Northern Ghana insyd 1994.
21st century[edit | edit source]
Winning de 2000 general election, John Kufuor wey rep New Patriotic Party was sworn for office as president for Ghana on 7 January 2001 den attained de presidency den again for de 2004 election, wey edey mean say he serve for two terms (de term limit) as president for Ghana den thus marking am de first tym under de fourth republic wey dem power transferred from one legitimately elected head of state den head of govament to another.
Nana Akufo-Addo, de ruling party candidate, go loose for a very close election by John Atta Mills wey rep National Democratic Congress following de 2008 general election. Mills died sake of natural causes den ein Vice President John Mahama succeeded ein on 24 July 2012. Following de 2012 general election, Mahama became president, den Ghana get a stable democracy. As a result for de 2016 general election, Nana Akufo-Addo became president for 7 January 2017. Dem san re-elected am after a tightly contested election for 2020.
On 11 June 2021, Ghana inaugurated Green Ghana Day as edey aim say we go plant 5 million trees in concentrating effort to preserve de country's ein cover for de rainforest so say dem go combat deforestation
Geography[edit | edit source]
Ghana dey for de Gulf of Guinea, only a few degrees north of de Equator, therefore giving am warm climate. Ghana get area size of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi) den get an Atlantic coastline dat stretches 560 kilometres (350 miles) for de Gulf of Guinea insyd de Atlantic Ocean to ein south. Dodi Island den Bobowasi Island bi close plus de south coast. Edey lies between latitudes 4°45'N den 11°N, den longitudes 1°15'E and 3°15'W. De prime meridian dey pass through Ghana, specifically through Tema. Ghana bi geographically closer to de "centre" for de Earth insyd dan any oda country, since ebi notional centre, (0°, 0°) bi located for de Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 mi) off de south-east coast for Ghana.
Grasslands mixed plus south coastal shrublands den forests dey dominate Ghana, plus forest extending northward wey from de coast 320 kilometres (200 miles) den eastward for a maximum of about 270 kilometres (170 miles) wid several locations for mining of industrial minerals den timber insyd. Ghana bi de home for five terrestrial ecoregions: Eastern Guinean forests, Guinean forest–savanna mosaic, West Sudanian savanna, Central African mangroves, den Guinean mangroves. Eget a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index wey mean say score of 4.53/10, ranking am de 112th globally out of 172 countries.
De White Volta River den ein tributary Black Volta, flow south through Ghana to Lake Volta, de world's third-largest reservoir by ein volume den largest by surface area, formed sake of hydroelectric Akosombo Dam, wey dem complete am for 1965. De Volta flows out of Lake Volta into de Gulf of Guinea. De northernmost part of Ghana bi Pulmakong den de southernmost part of Ghana bi Cape Three Points.
Volta Region: Longest mountain range for Ghana-Akwapim Togo ranges
- Mt Afadja- highest mountain for Ghana
- Wli waterfall- de highest waterfall for Ghana
- Amedzofe- Mt Gemi- waterfall den canopy walk.
- Golden sandy beaches stretching from Anyanui to Aflao
- Aflao: de eastern gateway to Ghana den bordering Lome, de Togolese capital
- Keta- Fort Prizenstein, de former Danish slave trading post. Site wey dem proposed for Keta Port. De town plus de most promising den expanding tourism potential for Ghana
Climate[edit | edit source]
De climate Ghana dey fall under bi tropical, den eget two main seasons: de wet season den de dry season. Ghana sits for de intersection of three hydro-climatic zones. Changes for rainfall, weather conditions den sea-level rise affect de salinity for de coastal waters. Dis bi expected to negatively affect ein both farming den fisheries. De national economy stands to suffer from de impacts of climate change sake of ein dependence for de climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture, energy, den forestry. Moreover, as you wan get access to fresh water edey become more challenging, den reduced water supply go fi get negative impact for de hydropower, wey edey provide 54% for de country ein electricity capacity. Additionally, Ghana probably go see chaw cases of malaria den cholera, sake of both are impacted by changes for de water conditions insyd.
Insyd 2015, de govament produced a document wey dem titled am "Ghana's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution." Following dat, Ghana signed de Paris Climate Agreement in 2016.
References[edit | edit source]
- Jackson, John G. (2001) Introduction to African Civilizations, Citadel Press, p. 201, ISBN 0-8065-2189-9
- Ghana a country to study. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. 1995. p. 63.
- Kacowicz, Arie M. (1998). Zones of Peace in the Third World: South America and West Africa. SUNY Press. p.144. ISBN 978-0-7914-3957-9
You fi read further[edit | edit source]
- Arhin, Kwame, The Life and Work of Kwame Nkrumah (Africa Research & Publications, 1995)
- Babatope, Ebenezer, The Ghana Revolution: From Nkrumah to Jerry Rawlings (Fourth Dimension Publishing, 1982)
- Birmingham, David, Kwame Nkrumah: Father Of African Nationalism (Ohio University Press, 1998)
- Boafo-Arthur, Kwame, Ghana: One Decade of the Liberal State (Zed Books, 2007)
- Briggs, Philip, Ghana (Bradt Travel Guide) (Bradt Travel Guides, 2010)
- Clark, Gracia, African Market Women: Seven Life Stories from Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2010)
- Davidson, Basil, Black Star: A View of the Life and Times of Kwame Nkrumah (James Currey, 2007)
- Falola, Toyin, and Salm, Stephen J, Culture and Customs of Ghana (Greenwood, 2002)
- Grant, Richard, Globalizing City: The Urban and Economic Transformation of Accra, Ghana (Syracuse University Press, 2008)
- Hadjor, Kofi Buenor, Nkrumah and Ghana (Africa Research & Publications, 2003)
- Hasty, Jennifer, The Press and Political Culture in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
- James, C.L.R., Kwame Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution (Allison & Busby, 1977)
- Kuada, John, and Chachah Yao, Ghana. Understanding the People and their Culture (Woeli Publishing Services, 1999)
- Miescher, Stephan F, Making Men in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
- Milne, June, Kwame Nkrumah, A Biography (Panaf Books, 2006)
- Nkrumah, Kwame, Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (International Publishers, 1971)
- Utley, Ian, Ghana – Culture Smart!: the essential guide to customs & culture (Kuperard, 2009)
- Various, Ghana: An African Portrait Revisited (Peter E. Randall Publisher, 2007)
- Younge, Paschal Yao, Music and Dance Traditions of Ghana: History, Performance and Teaching (Mcfarland & Co Inc., 2011)
[edit | edit source]
Government[edit | edit source]
General information[edit | edit source]
- Country Profile from BBC News
- Ghana from Encyclopædia Britannica
- Ghana from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Ghana. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Ghana profile from Africa.com
- The African Activist Archive Project website has photographs of the All Africa People's Conference held in Accra, Ghana, 5–13 December 1958 including Kwame Nkrumah, Prime Minister of Ghana, addressing the conference, the American Committee on Africa delegation meeting with Nkrumah, and of Patrick Duncan and Alfred Hutchinson of South Africa at the conference.
- Key Development Forecasts for Ghana from International Futures