Kwame Nkrumah

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Kwame Nkrumah
human
Sex anaa gendermale Edit
Country wey e be citizenGold Coast Colony, Ghana Edit
Name in native languageKwame Nkrumah Edit
Given nameKwame Edit
Family nameNkrumah Edit
Date of birth21 September 1909 Edit
Place dem born amNkroful Edit
Date of death27 April 1972 Edit
Place dem dieBucharest Edit
Manner of deathnatural causes Edit
Cause of deathskin cancer, prostate cancer Edit
Place wey dem bury amNkrumah Mausoleum, Accra, Nkroful Edit
Spouse Edit
KiddieGamal Nkrumah, Samia Nkrumah, Sekou Nkrumah Edit
Native languageFante Edit
Languages dem dey speak, wrep anaa signAkan, Nzema, Fante, English Edit
Occupationpolitician, writer, diplomat, lecturer Edit
Educate forLincoln University, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education, Achimota School, Lincoln University Edit
Honorific suffixPrivy Council of the United Kingdom Edit
Work locationElmina, Axim Edit
Political party ein memberConvention People's Party, United Gold Coast Convention Edit
Candidacy in election1960 Ghanaian presidential election Edit
Religion anaa worldviewChristianity Edit
Partner in business or sportDavid Wilberforce Kwami Dawson Edit
Participant inConference on Africa Edit
Military rankfield marshal Edit
Notable workAfrica Must Unite Edit
Member ofPhi Beta Sigma Edit
Award dem receiveLenin Peace Prize, Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, Order of the Companions of O. R. Tambo, Collar of the Order of the White Lion, Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta Edit
Ghana Place Names URLhttps://sites.google.com/site/ghanaplacenames/places-in-perspective/birthplaces#h.gb1ksetz76dk Edit

Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909[1] – 27 April 1972) be Ghanaian politician, political theorist den revolutionary. Na he be de first Prime Minister den President give Ghana, he make Gold Coast chop independence from Britain dema der for 1957 insyd.[2] He sansu be influential advocate for Pan-Africanism and he sansu bi political theorist. Nkrumah be one of the people wey create de Organization of African Unity wey he san chop de Lenin Peace Prize from the Soviet Union for 1962 insyd.[3]

He go abroad go do twelve years of higher education, he san develop ein political philosophy, den san organize plus other pan-Africanists wey dey abroad. Nkrumah come back to Gold Coast so say he go start ein political career as advocate for national independence.[4] He create de Convention People's Party, wey dem get quick success sake of dema appeal to de common voter.[5] He chop Prime Minister for 1952 insyd wey he san dey dey position de time wey Ghana come chop independence from Britain dema der for 1957 insyd. For 1960 insyd, Ghana people agree for fresh constitution wey dem vote give Nkrumah wey he come turn president.[6]

Na ein admi be socialist den nationalist all. He support industries wey dey de nation insyd den energy projects, e san develop strong national education system den promote pan-Africanist culture.[7] Ebe Nkrumah ein time wey Ghana lead international relations wey dey Africa for de decolonization period time nu.[8]

Nkrumah lead authoritarian regime for Ghana insyd, sake of he repress political opposition wey he conduct elections wey no be free den fair.[9][10][11][12][13] For 1964 insyd, constitutional amendment come make Ghana a one-party state, wey make Nkrumah chop president forever for nation den ein party all.[14] National Liberation Council komot Nkrumah for 1966 insyd, ebe dema time wey international financial institutions come turn chaw Ghana corporations into private ones.[15] Nkrumah go dey Guinea wey dem name am honorary co-president.[8][16][17]

Ein life matter[edit | edit source]

Kwame Nkrumah marry Fathia Ritzk, she be Egyptian Coptic bank worker den former teacher, for de eveninti for ein arrival for Ghana insyd: New Year ein Eve, 1957–1958.[18] Fathia ein mummy refuse say she go bless dema marriage, sake of reluctance to see say anoda one of ein kiddie dey leave plus foreign husbby.[19][20]

As dem be married couple, de Nkrumah family get three kiddies: Gamal (dem born am 1959), Samia (dem born am 1960), and Sekou (dem born am 1963). Gamal be newspaper journalist, wey Samia den Sekou be politicians. Nkrumah get anoda kiddie, Francis, paediatrician (dem born am 1962).[21] Der sansu appear anoda son, Onsy Anwar Nathan Kwame Nkrumah, ein Egyptian mummy wey born am[22][23] den additional daughter, Elizabeth.[23] Nkrumah ein oda kiddies dispute Onsy ein claim say he be Nkrumah ein son.[24][25]

Kwame Nkrumah ein works[edit | edit source]

  • "Negro History: European Government in Africa", The Lincolnian, 12 April 1938, p. 2 (Lincoln University, Pennsylvania) – see Special Collections and Archives, Lincoln University Archived 17 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine[26]
  • Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (1957). ISBN 0-901787-60-4[27]
  • Africa Must Unite (1963). ISBN 0-901787-13-2[28]
  • African Personality (1963)[29]

De essence of neo-colonialism be say de State wey be subject to ein be, for theory insyd, independent wey e get all de outwards trappings for international sovereignty. For reality insyd e be ein economic system den thus ein political policy wey outside direct am. — 

  • Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism (1965)
  • Axioms of Kwame Nkrumah (1967). ISBN 0-901787-54-X
  • African Socialism Revisited (1967)
  • Challenge of the Congo (1967)
  • Voice From Conakry (1967). ISBN 90-17-87027-3
  • Dark Days in Ghana (1968). ISBN 0-7178-0046-6
  • Handbook of Revolutionary Warfare (1968) – first introduction of Pan-African pellet compass. ISBN 0-7178-0226-4
  • Consciencism: Philosophy and Ideology for De-Colonisation (1970). ISBN 0-901787-11-6
  • Class Struggle in Africa (1970). ISBN 0-901787-12-4
  • The Struggle Continues (1973). ISBN 0-901787-41-8
  • I Speak of Freedom (1973). ISBN 0-901787-14-0
  • Revolutionary Path (1973). ISBN 978-0-901787-22-4

References[edit | edit source]

  1. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/lsehistory/2018/10/10/kwame-nkrumah-lse/
  2. "President Kennedy, Prime Minister Macmillan and the Gold Market, 196063", Governing Post-War Britain, Palgrave Macmilllan, doi:10.1057/9780230361270.0010, ISBN 978-0-230-36127-0
  3. Rathbone, Richard (23 September, 2004). "Nkrumah, Kwame (1909?-1972), president of Ghana". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31504.
  4. "Political Progress", The Political Philosophy of Confucianism, Routledge, pp. 258-273, 5 November 2013, doi:10.4324/9781315018775-19, ISBN 978-1-315-01877-5
  5. Proceedings of the convention at which the American federation of arts was formed. B. S. Adams. 1909. doi:10.5479/si.380651.39088006011662.
  6. "Prime Minister 1957-60", Kwame Nkrumah. Vision and Tragedy, Sub-Saharan Publishers, pp. 192-214, 15 November 2007, doi:10.2307/j.ctvk3gm60.17, ISBN 978-9988-647-81-0
  7. Stanek, Lukasz (2020). Architecture in global socialism: Eastern Europe, West Africa, and the Middle East in the Cold War. Princeton. ISBN 078-0-691-14455-4. OCLC 1134854794.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Nkrumah, Kwame (1953). [Letter: Kwame Nkrumah to Richard Wright].
  9. Mazrui, Ali (1966). "Nkrumah: The Leninist Czar". Transition (26): 9-17. doi:10.2307/2934320. ISSN 0041-1191. JSTOR 2934320.
  10. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/world-politics/article/abs/authoritarian-and-singleparty-tendencies-in-african-politics/C06E363B216E1DC2324E77AABDE4FE40
  11. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/american-political-science-review/article/abs/current-political-thought-and-practice-in-ghana/01D51435240B4DD2FFCDF67F554FA682
  12. https://www.dw.com/en/ghanas-kwame-nkrumah-visionary-authoritarian-ruler-and-national-hero/a-19070359
  13. https://www.nytimes.com/1964/05/03/archives/portrait-of-nkrumah-as-dictator.html
  14. "VII. The Reluctant Nation", One-Party Government in the Ivory Coast, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 219-249, 31 December 1964, doi:10.1515/9781400876563-012, ISBN 978-1-4008-7656-3
  15. "Country capabilities and the strategic state: How national political institutions affect multinational corporations' strategies". Long Range Planning. 28 (1): 142.1995.
  16. https://www.audlem.org/newsroom/headlines/birthday-quote-21092017.html
  17. https://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/read/222725
  18. http://www.nathanielturner.com/fathiankrumahfarewell.htm
  19. https://www.pulse.com.gh/news/local/here-are-all-the-first-ladies-of-ghana-since-independence/0l2k3hw
  20. https://www.modernghana.com/lifestyle/1095/fathia-the-rock-of-the-nkrumah-family.html
  21. https://www.myjoyonline.com/news/2014/September-22nd/africa-must-re-examine-implement-nkrumahs-ideas-francis-nkrumah.php
  22. https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Kwame-Nkrumah-s-unknown-son-surfaces-235004
  23. 23.0 23.1 https://www.peacefmonline.com/pages/local/social/201507/249589.php
  24. https://yen.com.gh/15809-father-not-denied-onsy-samia-nkrumah.html#15809
  25. https://www.pulse.com.gh/news/politics/family-issues-sekou-nkrumah-threatens-to-throw-brother-in-jail/qgk1w2r
  26. Bontemps, Arna (20 April 2017). "Lincoln and the Negro". University of Illinois Press. 1. doi:10.5406/illinois/9780252037696.003.0005.
  27. Nkrumah, Kwame (2002). Ghana: the autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (Africa's 100 best books ed.). London: Panaf. ISBN 0-901787-60-4. OCLC 6567302.
  28. Nkrumah, Kwame (1963). Africa must unite. London: Panaf ISBN 0-901787-13-2. OCLC 6567302.
  29. Mead, Margeret (1963). Technique & personality. Museum of Primitive Art. OCLC 603547274.