Gold Coast (British colony)

From Wikipedia
Gold Coast Colony
colony, historical country, realm, crown colony
Inception1821 Edit
Religion anaa worldviewtraditional African religion Edit
Official languageEnglish Edit
ContinentAfrica Edit
CountryUnited Kingdom Edit
CapitalAccra Edit
Coordinate location5°33′0″N 0°13′0″W Edit
Government ein basic formcolony Edit
CurrencyBritish West African pound, Gold Coast ackey Edit
Replaced byGhana Edit
Dey replaceGold Coast Edit
Language dem useAkan Edit
Date dem dissolve, abolish anaa demolish1957 Edit

De Gold Coast be British Crown colony for de Gulf of Guinea insyd West Africa from 1821 wey until ein independence insyd 1957 wey e cam turn Ghana.[1] De term Gold Coast dem dey san use am to describe all of de four separate jurisdictions wey dey under de administration of de Governor of de Gold Coast. Dese be de Gold Coast einself, Ashanti, de Northern Territories protectorate den de British Togoland trust territory.[2]

De first European explorers wey cam arrive for de coast be de Portuguese insyd 1471. Dem dey encounter variety of African kingdoms, sam of wich dem dey control substantial deposits of gold insyd de soil.[3] Insyd 1483, de Portuguese cam to de continent for increase insyd trade.[4] Dem cam build de Castle of Elmina, ebe de first European settlement for de Gold Coast. From hie dem dey acquire slaves den gold insyd trade for European goods, such as metal knives, beads, mirrors, rum, den guns.[5] News for de successful trading spread quickly, den British, Dutch, Danish, Prussian den Swedish traders dem all arrive.[6] De European traders cam build chaw forts along de coastline.[7] De Gold Coast name, dem dey use am long time as ebe region by Europeans secof de large gold resources dem cam find for de area der.[8] De slave trade be de principal exchange den major part of de economy for chaw years. Insyd dis period, European nations begin dey explore den colonize de Americas.[9] Soon de Portuguese den Spanish begin dey export African slaves to de Caribbean, den North den South America. De Dutch den British san dey enter de slave trade, for first dem dey supply slaves to markets insyd de Caribbean den for de Caribbean coast of South America.[10]

De Royal Trading Company dem establish am by de Crown insyd 1752 say ego lead ein trading for Africa insyd. Dem replace am by de African Company of Merchants, wey dey lead de British trading efforts into de early 19th century.[11] Insyd 1821, de British government withdraw dema charter den seize people dema private lands wey dey along de coast.[12] Insyd 1821, de government form de British Gold Coast colony, after dem take over de remaining interests of oda European countries.[13] Dem purchase den incorporate de Danish Gold Coast insyd 1850 den de Dutch Gold Coast, wey dey include Fort Elmina, insyd 1872.[14] Britain steadily expand ein colony thru de invasion den subjection of local kingdoms as well, particularly de Ashanti den Fante confederacies.[15]

De Ashanti people get control much of dema territory of Ghana before de Europeans arrive den wey dem dey often fight plus dem.[16] Insyd de 21st century dem dey continue to constitute de largest ethnic community insyd Ghana. Four wars, de Anglo-Ashanti Wars, wey dem dey fight between de Ashanti (Asante) den de British, wey samtyms ally plus de Fante.[17]

During de First Anglo-Ashanti War (1822–24), de two groups dey fight secof disagreement over de Ashanti chief den slavery. De British come abolish de Atlantic slave trade buh dem keep de institution insyd ein colonies until 1834.[18] Tensions increase insyd 1874 during de Second Ashanti War (1873–74) wen de British sack de Ashanti capital of Kumasi. De Third Ashanti War (1893–94) occur secof de fresh Ashanti ruler Asantehene dey want to exercise ein fresh title.[19] From 1895 to 1896 de British den Ashanti fight insyd de Fourth den final Ashanti War, wey de Ashanti fight den loose dema independence.[20] Insyd 1900 de Ashanti Uprising take place. De British dey suppress de violence den capture de city of Kumasi.[21] For de end of dis last Ashanti War, de territory for de Ashanti people cam turn British protectorate for 1 January 1902.[22]

By 1901, de British cam establish colony wey dey incorporate all of de Gold Coast, plus ein kingdoms den tribes wey dem dey consider am as single unit. De British come exploit den export a plenty of natural resources such as gold, metal ores, diamonds, ivory, pepper, timber, grain den cocoa.[23] De British colonists build railways den complex transport infrastructure so say ego support dema shipment of dese commodities. Dis dem dey form de basis for de transport infrastructure insyd de modern-day Ghana.[24]

By 1945, insyd de wake of a major colonial role insyd de Second World War, nationalists insyd de Gold Coast take a leadership role wey dem dey demand more autonomy.[25] Insyd 1951–55 dem share power plus Britain. By 1956, British Togoland, de Northern Territories Protectorate den de Ashanti protectorate wey dem merge am plus de Gold Coast so say dem go create one colony, wey e cam turn known as Gold Coast.[26] De Ghana Independence Act 1957 dey constitute de Gold Coast Crown Colony as part of de fresh dominion of Ghana.[27]

History[edit | edit source]

British rule[edit | edit source]

By de late 19th century, de British, thru conquest anaa purchase, dem occupy most of de forts along de coast. Two major factors dem take lay de foundations of British rule den de eventual establishment of colony for de Gold Coast: British reaction to de Asante wars den de resulting instability den disruption of trade, den Britain ein increasing preoccupation plus de suppression den elimination of de slave trade.[28][29]

During most of de 19th century, Asante, de most powerful state of de Akan interior, dem seek say dem go expand dema rule den promote den protect dema trade.[30] De first Asante invasion of de coastal regions take place insyd 1807; de Asante san move south insyd de Ga-Fante War of 1811 den insyd de Ashanti–Akim–Akwapim War of 1814–16.[31] Dese invasions, though no be decisive, dem disrupt trade products lyk feathers, ivory, rubber den palm oil, wey dem threaten de security of de European forts. Local British, Dutch, den Danish authorities dem force all say make dem come to terms plus de Asante.[32] Insyd 1817 de African Company of Merchants sign treaty of friendship wey dem recognise Asante as dem dey claim sovereignty over large areas of de coast den ein peoples.[29][33] De assets of de African Company of Merchants dey consist of primarily of nine trading posts anaa factories: Fort William, Fort James, Fort Sekondi, Fort Winneba, Fort Apollonia, Fort Tantumquery, Fort Metal Cross, Fort Komenda, den Cape Coast Castle, de last of dem be de administrative centre.[34]

De coastal people, primarily some of de Fante den de inhabitants of de new town of Accra, who dem chiefly be Ga, come to rely for de British protection against Asante incursions.[35] Buh de merchant companies get limited ability to provide such security. De British Crown dissolve de company insyd 1821, giving authority over British forts on de Gold Coast to Charles MacCarthy, governor of de colony of Sierra Leone.[36] De British forts den Sierra Leone remain under common administration for de first half of de century.[37] MacCarthy ein mandate dem impose peace den end de slave trade. He seek say he go do dis by encouraging de coastal peoples to oppose Kumasi rule den by closing de great roads to de coast. Incidents den sporadic warfare continue, howeva.[38] Insyd 1824 MacCarthy kill den most of ein force dem wipe dem out insyd a battle plus Asante forces.[39] De British dem are able to defeat de Asante invasion of de coast insyd 1826 plus a combine force of British den local forces, wey dey include de Fante den de people of Accra.[29][40]

De First Anglo-Ashanti War

Wen de British government allow control of de Gold Coast settlements make dem revert to de British African Company of Merchants insyd de late 1820s, relations plus Asante wey still be problematic.[13] From de Asante point of view, de British fail make dem control de activities of dema local coastal allies.[41] If dem fi do dis, Asante no go fi find am as necessary make dem attempt to impose peace for de coastal peoples top. MacCarthy ein encouragement of coastal opposition to Asante den de subsequent 1824 British military attack further wey edey indicate to Asante leaders dat de Europeans, especially de British, wey no dey pect de Asante.[29][33]

Insyd 1830 London committee of merchants choose Captain George Maclean say make he cam turn presido of de local council of merchants.[42] Although ein formal jurisdiction be limited, Maclean ein achievements be substantial; for example, he arrange peace treaty plus de Asante insyd 1831.[43] Maclean san supervise de coastal people make he dey hold regular court insyd Cape Coast, wey he sentence den punish dose dem find guilty secof he dey disturb de peace.[44] Between 1830 den 1843, wey Maclean be in charge of affairs for de Gold Coast, no confrontations occur plus Asante. De volume of trade reportedly increased threefold.[45]

De Portuguese-build Elmina Castle wey dem purchase am by Britain insyd 1873. Dem san know am as St. George Castle, now ebe World Heritage Site

Independence[edit | edit source]

On 6 March 1957, de Colony of Gold Coast gain ein independence as de country of Ghana.[27][46]

San see[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "One-Man Policy—A Curse to West Africa", The Gold Coast Nation and National Consciousness, Routledge, pp. 54–59, 13 September 2013, doi:10.4324/9781315033044-11, ISBN 978-1-315-03304-4
  2. Chipp, Thomas Ford (1922). Forest officers' handbook of the Gold Coast, Ashanti and the Northern Territories. London [etc.]: Waterlow & sons limited. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.45233.
  3. "Gold Coast", African American Studies Center, Oxford University Press, 7 April 2005, doi:10.1093/acref/9780195301731.013.41463, ISBN 978-0-19-530173-1
  4. "57. How It Came About That Children Were First Whipped", African Folktales, Princeton University Press, pp. 209–211, 2015, doi:10.1353/chapter.1546551, ISBN 978-1-4008-7294-7
  5. Irwin, Graham W. (1971). "Gold and Guns on the Gold Coast - Trade and Politics on the Gold Coast 1600–1720. A Study of the African Reaction to European Trade. By Kwame Yeboa Daaku. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. Pp. xviii + 219; maps. £2.50". The Journal of African History. 12 (2): 330–331. doi:10.1017/s0021853700010744. ISSN 0021-8537. S2CID 155038059.
  6. Sutton, Angela (3 July 2015). "The Seventeenth-century Slave Trade in the Documents of the English, Dutch, Swedish, Danish and Prussian Royal Slave Trading Companies". Slavery & Abolition. 36 (3): 445–459. doi:10.1080/0144039x.2015.1067975. ISSN 0144-039X. S2CID 143085310.
  7. Corliss, Timothy (26 September 2015), "New World Trading of Old World Markets: European Derivatives", Master Traders, Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 242–262, doi:10.1002/9781119205043.ch12, ISBN 978-1-119-20504-3
  8. Chalmers, AlbertJ. (1900). "Uncomplicated Æstivo-Autumnal Fever in Europeans in the Gold Coast Colony, West Africa". The Lancet. 156 (4027): 1262–1264. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(01)99958-1. ISSN 0140-6736.
  9. Klein, Herbert S. (2010), "Major slaving ports of the Gold Coast and the Bights of Benin and Biafra", The Atlantic Slave Trade, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. xiii, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511779473.003, ISBN 978-0-511-77947-3
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  11. Gelder, M. Van (2009), "Introduction", Trading Places Trading Places: The Netherlandish Merchants in Early Modern Venice, Brill Academic Publishers, pp. 1–20, doi:10.1163/ej.9789004175433.i-246.10, ISBN 978-90-04-17543-3
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  19. Brackenbury, Henry, Sir (1873). Fanti and Ashanti. W. Blackwood and Sons. doi:10.5479/sil.204747.39088000128199.
  20. "The Ashanti Expedition". The Lancet. 146 (3768): 1246–1247. 1895. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(00)31670-1. ISSN 0140-6736.
  21. Armitage, Cecil Hamilton; Montanaro, Arthur Forbes (2011), "Shut up in Kumasi", The Ashanti Campaign of 1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 34–44, doi:10.1017/cbo9781139058032.006, ISBN 978-1-139-05803-2
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  23. Milburn, Josephine (1970). "The 1938 Gold Coast Cocoa Crisis: British Business and the Colonial Office". African Historical Studies. 3 (1): 57–74. doi:10.2307/216480. ISSN 0001-9992. JSTOR 216480.
  24. "Figure 2.20 Transport infrastructure spending has been below OECD average". doi:10.1787/888933318975.
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  40. Connaughton, Richard M. (1 January 2000). "Organizing British Joint Rapid Reaction Forces (Joint Force Quarterly, Autumn 2000)". Fort Belvoir, VA. doi:10.21236/ada426696.
  41. "Ahmadiyya Expansion to Asante", The Ahmadiyya in the Gold Coast, Indiana University Press, pp. 199–217, 2017, doi:10.2307/j.ctt2005s3h.15, ISBN 978-0-253-02951-5
  42. "de Mel, Sir Henry Lawson, (1877–8 May 1936), Member of the Legislative Council; Member of the Municipal Council; JP for the island; President Plumbago Merchants' Union; Proprietor H. L. de Mel & Co., merchants", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u213981
  43. "de Mel, Sir Henry Lawson, (1877–8 May 1936), Member of the Legislative Council; Member of the Municipal Council; JP for the island; President Plumbago Merchants' Union; Proprietor H. L. de Mel & Co., merchants", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2007, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u213981
  44. Bernstein, Rachel (6 July 2015). "HIV researcher found guilty of research misconduct sentenced to prison". Science. doi:10.1126/science.caredit.a1500171. ISSN 1095-9203.
  45. Grenfell-Williams, Dorothy (1962). "Maclean of the Gold Coast". African Affairs. 61 (245): 348–350. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a095044. ISSN 1468-2621.
  46. Laronce, Cécile. Auteur. (1997). L'influence de Nkrumah dans la politique étrangère américaine : les États-Unis découvrent l'Afrique, 1945-1966. [s.n.] OCLC 490457889.

You fi read further[edit | edit source]

  • Bourret, Florence Mabel. Gold Coast: A survey of the Gold Coast and British Togoland, 1919-1946. (Stanford University Press, 1949). online
  • Buah, F. K. A history of Ghana (London: Macmillan, 1998)
  • Cana, Frank Richardson (1911). "Gold Coast" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 12 (11th ed.). pp. 203–207.
  • Claridge, W. W. A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti (1915)
  • Davidson, Basil. Black Star: a view of the life and times of Kwame Nkrumah (1990)
  • Gocking, Roger S. The History of Ghana (2005). online free to borrow
  • Graham, Charles Kwesi. The History of Education in Ghana: From the Earliest Times to the Declaration of Independence (Routledge, 2013)
  • Kimble, David (1963). A Political History of Ghana: The Rise of Gold Coast Nationalism, 1850–1928. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • McLaughlin, James L., and David Owusu-Ansah. "Historical Setting" (and sub-chapters). In A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, ed.). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  • Owusu-Ansah, David. Historical dictionary of Ghana (Rowman & Littlefield, 2014)
  • Quartey, Seth (2007). Missionary Practices on the Gold Coast, 1832–1895: Discourse, Gaze and Gender in the Basel Mission in Pre-Colonial West Africa. Youngstown, New York: Cambria Press. ISBN 978-1-62499-043-4.
  • Szereszewski, R. Structural Changes in the Economy of Ghana, 1891-1911 (London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1965)
  • Ward, W. E. F. A History of Ghana (Allen & Unwin, 1966) online free to borrow
  • Gyasi, Yaa (2016). Homegoing. New York, NY: Knopf.
  • Great Britain. Colonial Office. Annual report on the Gold Coast (annual 1931–1953) online free

External links[edit | edit source]