Libya (/ˈlɪbiə/ (listen); Arabic: ليبيا, romanized: Lībiyā, pronounced [liː.bi.jæː]), officially de State of Libya (Arabic: دولة ليبيا, romanized: Dawlat Lībiyā), be country for de Maghreb region wey dey North Africa. De Mediterranean Sea dey border am go de north, Egypt go de east, Sudan go de southeast, Chad go de south, Niger go de southwest, Algeria go de west, den Tunisia go de northwest. Libya get three historical regions: Tripolitania, Fezzan, den Cyrenaica. Plus area of almost 1.8 million km2 (700,000 sq mi), ebe de fourth-largest country for Africa den de Arab world insyd, den de 16th-largest for de world insyd. De country ein official religion be Islam, plus 96.6% of de Libyan population be Sunni Muslims. De official language for Libya be Arabic, plus vernacular Libyan Arabic be de one dem dey speak waa, wey de majority of Libya ein population be Arab. De largest city den capital, Tripoli, dey locate for north-western Libya wey edey contain ova million of Libya ein seven million people.
Berbers inhabit Libya since de late Bronze Age as descendants from Iberomaurusian den Capsian dema cultures. For classical antiquity insyd, de Phoenicians establish city-states den postd dem dey trade for western Libya insyd, while na dem establish chaw Greek cities for de East insyd. Carthaginians, Persians, den Greeks rule parts of Libya before de entire region cam turn part of de Roman Empire. Na Libya be early center of Christianity. After de fall of de Western Roman Empire, de Vandals mstly occupy de area of Libya til de 7th century wen invasions take Islam cam de region. From then dey go, centuries of Arab migration go de Maghreb shift de demographic scope of Libya wey favor de Arabs. For de 16th century insyd, de Spanish Empire den de Knights of St John occupy Tripoli til Ottoman rule begin for 1551 insyd. Na Libya be involve for de Barbary Wars of de 18th den 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continue til de Italo-Turkish War, wey result for de Italian occupation of Libya den de establishment of two colonies, Italian Tripolitania den Italian Cyrenaica (1911–1934), later dem unify for de Italian Libya colony insyd from 1934 go 1943.
During de Second World War, na Libya be area of warfare for de North African Campaign insyd. De Italian population then go into decline. Libya cam turn independent as kingdom for 1951 insyd. Bloodless military coup for 1969 insyd, coalition wey Colonel Muammar Gaddafi initiate, ovathrow King Idris I wey he create republic. Na critics often dey describe Gaddafi as dictator, wey na he be one of de world ein longest serving non-royal leaders, wey rule for 42 years. He rule til dem ovathrow den kill am during de 2011 Libyan Civil War, wey na ebe part of de wider Arab Spring, plus dem transfer authority give de National Transitional Council then give de General National Congress dem elect. By 2014 two rival authorities claim dem dey govern Libya, wey lead to second civil war, plus dem split parts of Libya between de Tobruk den Tripoli-based governments as well as various tribal den Islamist militias. De two main warring sides sign permanent ceasefire for 2020 insyd, wey a unity government take authority make e plan give democratic elections, though political rivalries dey continue dey delay dis. Libya get de 10th-largest proven oil reserves for de world insyd. Libya be member of de United Nations, de Non-Aligned Movement, de African Union, de Arab League, de Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) den Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
References[edit | edit source]
- J. Desanges, "The proto-Berbers", pp. 236–245, especially p. 237, in General History of Africa, vol. II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa (UNESCO 1990).