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Southern African Development Community

From Wikipedia
Southern African Development Community
international organization
Industryinternational governmental or non-governmental organizations Edit
Year dem found am1980, 1992 Edit
CountryBotswana Edit
Get subsidiarySADC Statistics Committee, SADC Tribunal Edit
Demma headquarters locationGaborone Edit
Dema official websitehttps://www.sadc.int Edit
Official observer status in organisationWorld Intellectual Property Organization, United Nations General Assembly, International Organization for Migration Edit

De Southern African Development Community (SADC) bi inter-governmental organization wey gey ein headquarters insyd Gaborone, Botswana.

Ein goal bi say dem go further regional socio-economic cooperation den integration as well as political den security cooperation among 16 countries insyd southern Africa.

Member states[edit | edit source]

As of 2022, de SADC gey total of 16 member states:

Member states surface area and populations
Country Area (km2) Population (2020) GDP (USD) Notes on Membership
Total (billions) Per Capita
Angola 1,246,700 32,866,268 $124.86 $3,792.75
Botswana 582,000 2,351,625 $18.42 $7,519.2
Comoros 2,235 869,595 $1.31 $1,371.02 De Union of Comoros dem admit am into SADC at de 37th SADC Summit of Heads of State den Government for Pretoria, South Africa insyd 2017, bringing de total number of Member States to 16.
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,344,858 89,561,404 $64.79 $669.36 Since 8 September 1997
Eswantini 17,363 1,160,164 $4.65 $4,035.54
Lesotho 30,355 2,142,252 $2.56 $1,212.57
Madagascar 587,295 27,691,019 $14.61 $504.31 Admit am on 18 August 2005. Membership den san reinstate am on 30 January 2014 after an imposed suspension in 2009
Malawi 118,484 19,129,955 $12.04 $545.06
Mauritius 1,969 1,265,740 $11.26 $8,892.11 Since 28 August 1995
Mozambique 801,590 31,255,435 $18.09 $546.71
Namibia 824,268 2,540,916 $13.01 $5,016.17 Since 21 March 1990 (since independence)
Seychelles 456 98,462 $1.75 $17,693.00 Na he bi previously bi a member of SADC from 8 September 1997 until 1 July 2004 den come joine again in 2008.
South Africa 1,221,037 59,308,690 $426.17 $6,979.44 Since 30 August 1994
Tanzania 947,303 59,734,213 $77.51 $1,260.06
Zambia 752,612 18,383,956 $26.66 $1,330.37
Zimbabwe 390,757 14,862,927 $36.38 $2,300.56

Burundi has requested to join.

De origin den history of de SADC[edit | edit source]

De origins of SADC bi insyd de 1960s den 1970s, wen de leaders of majority-ruled countries den national liberation movements coordinated demma political, diplomatic den military struggles wey bring an end to de colonial den white-minority rule insyd Southern Africa. De immediate forerunner for de political dem security cooperation leg for today's SADC bi de informal Frontline States (FLS) grouping. Dem form am insyd 1980.

Flag of the SADCC

De Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) bi de forerunner for de socio-economic cooperation leg for today ein SADC. Dem adopt am by nine majority-ruled southern African countries insyd de Lusaka declaration for 1 April 1980 wey pave way give de formal establishment of SADCC insyd April 1980.

Membership for de FLS den SADCC sometyms dey differ.

Ebi SADCC wey dem transform am into SADC on 17 August 1992, plus de adoption by de founding members of SADCC den newly independent Namibia for de Windhoek declaration den treaty establishing SADC. De 1992 SADC provide give both socio-economic cooperation den political den security cooperation. In reality, de FLS dem dissolve am only insyd 1994, after South Africa ein first democratic elections. Subsequent efforts to place political den security cooperation for a firm institutional footing under SADC's umbrella make yawa.

On 14 August 2001, de 1992 SADC treaty dem amend am. De amendment wey dem herald wey dem overhaul ein structures, policies den procedures of SADC, ebi a process wey edey go on. One of demma changes bi say de political den security cooperation is institutionalized insyd de Organ on Politics, Defence den Security (OPDS); one of demma principal SADC bodies. Ebi subject to de oversight give de organisation ein supreme body, de Summit, wey dey comprise de heads of state or government.

De organisation dey hold ein own multi-sport event insyd de form for de SADC Games, wey ebi first dem hold insyd 2004 in for Maputo. Originally dem plan am for an earlier date insyd Malawi den Lesotho, organisational issues cause am to be abandon sake of de plan den de SADC wey dem issue a fine of $100,000 against Malawi. De first event in 2004 in Maputo wey edey result in over 1000 youths under-20 from 10 countries go take part insyd a sports programme wey dey include athletics, football, netball, boxing and basketball.

Insyd August 2019 SADC dem adopt Swahili as ebi demma fourth working language, alongside English, French den Portuguese. Kiswahili – ebi a lingua franca insyd de African Great Lakes region, other parts for East Africa, den to a lesser degree, parts of Southern Africa – is ebi official language give Tanzania, Kenya den Uganda de African Union.

Protocols[edit | edit source]

SADC gey 27 legally binding protocols wey dey deal with demma issues such as Defence, Development, Illicit Drug Trade, Free Trade den Movement of demma People.

  • Protocol on Energy (1996) – Demma mind bi say ego promote harmonious development for national energy policies. Dese development strategies dem set out tangible objectives give SADC den ein Member States for infrastructure development insyd energy den ein subsectors give woodfuel, petroleum den natural gas, electricity, coal, renewable energy, den energy efficiency plus conservation.
  • Protocol on Gender den Development – Dem ask member states say dem for accelerate implementation efforts as dem wan dem achieve concrete den transformative changes for de lives of women den girlies insyd de region. H.E. President Mutharika san express ein concern on de escalating incidents of gender based violence insyd de region, especially dose wey dey perpetrate against women den girlies, den use am dis occasion go sign a commitment say dem go end child marriages, as part of demma AU campaign to end Child Marriages insyd Africa.
  • Protocol on Politics, Defence den Security Co-operation (2001) – Dem make demma mind say dem go foster regional security den defence cooperation, promote peace, political stability den conflict-management. De protocol wey dem initiate san bi an institutional reform for SADC's Organ for Politics, Defence den Security (OPDS).

SADC FTA[edit | edit source]

De SADC Free Trade Area dem establish am insyd August 2008, after dem implement de SADC Protocol on Trade insyd 2000 as dem lay de foundation for ein formation. Ein original members bi Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Eswatini, Tanzania, Zambia den Zimbabwe, plus Malawi den Seychelles wey later join dem. Of de 15 SADC member states, only Angola den de Democratic Republic of Congo dem no participate yet, however Angolan trade minister Joffre Van-Dúnen Júnior talk for Luanda say ein ministry dem dey work say dem go create conditions give Angola ein accession to de SADC Free Trade Area insyd 2019. De SADC-Customs Union, wey dem schedule am to be establish by 2010 according to SADC ein Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), bi unlikely say dem go fi make am reality in de near future. Dis bi so sake of de European Union ein Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA) plus demma inherent extra-regional free trade regimes dey provide give several SADC members as egey more benefits dan deeper regional market integration within demma framework of SADC-Customs Union. Since dese SADC countries dem form four different groupings go negotiate den implement different Economic Partnership Agreements plus European Union, de chance bi say edey establish SADC-wide common external tariff as prerequisite give de regional customs union as edey miss.

On Wednesday 22 October 2008, SADC join de Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa den de East African Community go form de African Free Trade Zone, wey edey include all members for each of demma organizations. De leaders for de three trading blocs dey agree say dem go create single free trade zone, ebi de African Free Trade Zone, wey edey consist of 26 countries plus demma GDP for de estimate $624bn (£382.9bn). Ebi so as dem dey hope say de African Free Trade Zone agreement go ease access to markets within demma zone den end problems as edey arise from de fact say several of demma member countries dey belong to multiple groups.

De African Free Trade Zone bi effective say egey more dan a hundred years insyd de making—a trade zone spanning de whole African continent from Cape to Cairo den envision am by Cecil Rhodes den other British imperialists insyd de 1890s. De only difference bi say dat de African Free Trade Zone bi creation of independent African Countries. Demma idea for free trade zone dey span lyk de whole continent from de Cape to Cairo (Cape Town insyd de Republic of South Africa to Cairo insyd Egypt).

As dem wan eliminate duplicative membership den de problem of member states wey san dey participate insyd other regional economic cooperation schemes den regional political den security cooperation schemes dat may compete plus or undermine each other, de African Free Trade Zone san dey aim say ego strengthen de bloc ein bargaining power as dem dey negotiate international deals.

Pursuant to de SADC goal for more integration, Botswana den Namibia sign de agreement insyd February 2023 wey dey allow demma citizens to travel between de two countries as dem dey use only identity cards, plus passports as eno sheda dey hia. Botswana gey ein talks plus Zimbabwe as dem dey achieve a similar deal, den expects say ego open talks plus Zambia.

Challenges wey dey face member countries[edit | edit source]

SADC countries dey face chaw social, development, economic, trade, education, health, diplomatic, defence, security den political challenges. Some of dese challenges dem no go fi tackle am effectively by demma individual members. Cattle diseases den organised-crime gangs no know boundaries. War insyd one country can fi suck insyd ein neighbours den damage demma economies. De sustainable development dat trade fi bring bi threaten by de existence of different product standards den tariff regimes, weak customs infrastructure den bad roads. De socio-economic den political den security cooperation aim say SADC bi equally wide-ranging, den intend say ego address de various common challenges.

One significant challenge bi say demma member states san participate insyd other regional economic cooperation schemes den regional political den security cooperation schemes dat go fi compete plus or undermine SADC ein aims. For example, South Africa den Botswana both dey belong to the Southern Africa Customs Union, Zambia bi part of de Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, de Tanzania bi member of de East African Community.

According to Human Rights Watch, "SADC has been criticized for its laxity on making human rights compliance within its member states a priority".

Structure den decision-making procedures[edit | edit source]

De organization gey six principal bodies:

Leaders[edit | edit source]

Chairperson[edit | edit source]

Country Chairperson Term
Zambia Levy Mwanawasa 2007–2008
South Africa Kgalema Motlanthe 2008–2009
Democratic Republic of Congo Joseph Kabila 2009–2010
Namibia Hifikepunye Pohamba 2010–2011
Angola José Eduardo dos Santos 2011–2012
Mozambique Armando Guebuza 2012–2013
Malawi Joyce Banda
Peter Mutharika
2013–31 May 2014
31 May–17 August 2014
Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe 2014–17 August 2015
Botswana Ian Khama 17 August 2015 – 2016
Eswatini King Mswati III 2016–2017
South Africa Jacob Zuma
Cyril Ramaphosa
Namibia Hage Geingob 17 August 2018 – 17 August 2019
Tanzania John Magufuli 17 August 2019 – 17 August 2020
Mozambique Filipe Nyusi 17 August 2020 – 17 August 2021
Malawi Lazarus Chakwera 17 August 2021–17 August 2022
Democratic Republic of Congo Félix Tshisekedi 17 August 2022–present

Executive Secretaries[edit | edit source]

Country Name Term
Namibia Kaire Mbuende 1994–2000
Mauritius Prega Ramsamy 2000–2001 (Acting)
Mozambique Tomaz Salomão 2005–2013
Tanzania Stergomena Tax 2013–2021
Botswana Elias Mpedi Magosi 2021–present

Comparison plus other regional blocs[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]